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[Megathread] XMG FUSION 15 (with Intel)


On September 6 at IFA, press released their first reports about our collaboration project with Intel: XMG FUSION 15.
Community Links:

Press Links:

Video Links:

The following key facts have already been revealed:
Prices and availability will be announced on September 17. → Countdown to xmg.gg
Teaser Trailer on YouTube: XMG FUSION 15 Laptop | A Design Collaboration with Intel
We look forward to your questions and your feedback!

XMG FUSION 15 - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)

This FAQ represents Q&A's over the last few days here. Fellow redditor u/iterateandgit was so kind to help me putting this document together. Big shout out to him please! The FAQ will be further extended over the coming days and weeks. Please keep the questions coming!

Sales, Shipping, Warranty


Q: Are you going to sell this on Amazon in the EU?
A: We are working on getting the product up and running on Amazon. But our own BTO shop at www.bestware.com will always be our primary sales channel and will be the only one where you can customize and configure memory, storage, OS, extend your warranty and pick other options.

Q: Do you offer student discounts or other sales compaigns like black friday?
A: In general, we don't offer student discounts. Sales campaigns are planned just in time, depending on stock level and cannot be announced early. If you want to keep up to date about sales campaigns, please subscribe to our newsletter.

Q: Do you ship to the UK? Can I pay in GBP?
A: We ship to the UK - the pricing will be in EUR, so your bank will do the conversion. Warranty services will be available from UK, shipping to Germany. Currently, in the single markets, these resturn shipments are free for the end-user. In the worst case there might be additional customs fees for shipping.

Q: What warranty options do you offer?
A: All our laptops come with 2 year warranty. Warranty repairs in the first 6 months are promised to be done within 48 hours (+shipping). Both the "instant repair" service and the warranty itself can be extended to up to 3 years.

Q: Do you sell outside of Europe?
A: We are able to ship anywhere, but warranty for customers outside the region would always involve additional customs cost and paperwork for sending the laptop back to Germany in the rare event of an RMA. There is currently no agreement to let other Local OEMs (like Eluktronics in the US) carry the warranty for XMG customers and vice-versa. Some parts are customized (in our case the LCD lid and the keyboard) and it won't be easy to agree on how to share handling fees etc. - so I wouldn't expect a global warranty anytime soon.


Hardware, Specs, Thermals


Q: What is the difference between XMG FUSION 15 and other laptops based on Intel's reference design?
A: The hardware of the barebone will be identical. Other Local OEMs might use different parts for RAM and SSDs. Our branding and service/warranty options might be different. We apply our own set of performance profiles in the Control Center. This will rebalance the differentiation between Silent, Balanced and Enthusiast modes.

Q: What is the TGP of the NVIDIA RTX 2070 Max-Q?
A: Officially, it is 80W in Balanced profile and 90W in Enthusiast profile. You can toggle between these modes in real-time with a dedicated mode switch button. Inofficially, the TGP can go up to 115W in Enthusiast profile thanks to the Overboost mechanic, working in the background. However, those 115W may only be sustained until the system has reached thermal saturation, i.e. when the GPU is approaching the GPU Temperature Target of 75°C.

Q: Can I upgrade the storage and memory after I buy?
A: On storage: The laptop has two m.2 PCI-Express SSD slots. This will give you currently up to 4 TB of SSD storage. There is no 2.5" HDD slot available. Instead, the battery is enlarged to 93.48Wh. You can see pictures of the interior layouts here, here and here.
On memory: the laptop has two SO-DIMM DDR4 memory sockets. You can chose during BTO configuration, if you want to occupy both of them when you order the product. We recommend running the laptop in Dual Channel for high-performance usage.

Q: How easy is to upgrade and repair this laptop?
A: Here are the key facts:
We would give this a solid 8 out of 10 which is pretty high for such a thin&light design. The 2 remaining points are substracted for BGA CPU and GPU, which is unfortunately unavoidable in such a thin design.

Q: Does it support Windows Hello?
A: A Fingerprint-Reader is not available, but the HD webcam comes with Infrared and supports Windows Hello.

Q: Can I get a smaller, lighter charger for this laptop?
A: XMG FUSION 15 requires a 230W power adaptor to provide full performance. If you max out CPU and GPU with furmark and prime, the 230W adapter will be fully utilized.
There are currently two compatible 230W adapters. They have different dimensions but similar weight. Please refer to this comparison table:
XMG FUSION 15 Power Supply Comparsion Table (Google Drive)
Includes shop links. Will be updated with precise weight numbers in the next few days. I also included 120W, 150W and 180W in this table. They all share the same plug (5.5/2.5,, diameter, 12.5mm length). But 120W and 150W are only rated for 19V but the laptop expect 19.5V. Usually this will be compensated by tolerance but we haven't tested how a system would behave under long-term usage with such an adaptor.
In theory, 120W to 180W are enough for charing the laptop and for browsing/web/media. Even a full CPU stress test could easily be handled. But as soon as you use CPU and GPU together, you'll run into the bottleneck and your performance will be reduced.
Comparison pictures:
These 5 pictures show only the relevant 230W chargers.
Again, the weight is about the same.

Q: Is it possible to boot and run the laptop while the lid is kept closed?
A: Closing the lid under load is not recommended because it will limit the airflow and have a bad effect on keyboard and screen. The laptop likes to take air in from the keycaps. With lid closed, the performance might be limited due to reaching temp targets earlier.

Q: Can I get the laptop without the XMG logo? I will be using it in public presentations and I would not like any brand names visible.
A: We cannot ship without XMG logo, but you can use a dbrand skins to cover our logo. We have not yet decided if we want to invest into integrating XMG FUSION 15 into the dbrand shop. But you can already buy 100% compatible skins by using the page of the Eluktronics MAG-15 at dbrand. The chassis dimensions are exactly the same. Please be aware: you have to manually select the option "No Logo Cutout" if you want to buy these skins for your XMG FUSION 15. According to dbrand, there will be most likely no import fees when ordering from the EU as long as the order is below 100€. Check this thread for details.

Q: Will you offer thermal paste upgrades like Thermal Grizzly Kryonaut or Liquid Metal?
A: Our ODMs are using silicon-based, high-performance thermal compund from international manufacturers like Shin-Etsu (Japan) and M.G. (USA). Intel is using MG-860 in this reference design.
These products are used in the industrial sector, so they have no publicly known brand name. Nevertheless, their high thermal conductivity and guaranteed durability provide optimal and long-lasting cooling of your high-performance laptop. The thermal compounds are applied and sealed automatically by the vendor of the thermal components. They are applied in a highly controlled, standardized manner and provide the best balance of thermal performance, production tolerance and product lifetime.
We are considering offering an upgrade to Thermal Grizzly Kryonaut due to popular demand. Will keep you posted on that.

Q: Could you please provide an estimate for how much regular usage (~10 browser tabs + some IDE) battery backup would this have? Will there be any way to trade-off battery backup with performance?
A: Battery life vs. peak performance can be traded off by using the "Silent" performance profile. You can switch between profiles using a dedicated button on the machine. Your scenario (10 tabs + some IDE) sounds like mostly reading and writing. I would estimate to get at least 7 hours of solid battery life in such a scenario, maybe more. We have achieved 8 hours in 1080p Youtube streaming on WiFi with 50% screen brightness. Adblock and NoScript helps to keep your idle browser tabs in check.


I/O Ports, Peripherals


Q: Why are there not more USB-A 3.1 Gen2 or even USB 3.2 Gen2x2 ports?
A: USB-A 3.1 Gen1 is basically the same as USB 3.0. There aren't a lot of USB-A devices that support more than USB 3.0 speed. Faster devices typically use USB-C connectors and can be used on Thunderbolt 3, which is down-compatible to USB-C 3.1 Gen2. One of the USB-A ports actually supports Gen2 speed.
For the following remarks, please keep in mind that I am not an Intel rep, so everything is based on our own experience.
The mainboard design and the I/O port decisions have been made by Intel. Feedback and requests from LOEM customers have been taken into consideration. We would assume that USB 3.2. Gen2x2 (20 Gbit/s) was not considered to be important enough to safe space for 3rd party IC (integrated circuits) on the motherboard. Right now, all the USB ports and Thunderbolts are supplied by Intel's own IC, so they have full control over the hardware, firmware and driver stack and over power saving and performance control. The more IC you add, the higher your Idle power consumption will be, plus adding potential compatibility or speed issues as it often happens with 1st generation 3rd party USB implementations. I very well remember from my own experience the support stories during the first years of USB 3.0, before it was supported in the Intel chipset. On the one hand, Intel is aiming high in terms of performance and convenience, on the other hand: support and reliability still seem to be Intel's goal #1. Thus they seem to play it safe where they deem it to be reasonable.
Intel is gearing up for USB 4.0 and next-gen Thunderbolt. USB 3.2 2x2 is probably treated as little more than a roadmap accident. Peripheral vendors might see it the same way.

Q: Do you support charging over USB-C/Thunderbolt? Does it support docking stations?
A: The Thunderbolt 3 port in Intel's reference design does not support charging. As you probably know, the 100W limit would not be enough to power the whole system and it would make the mainboard more complex to combine two different ways of charging. Intel consciously opted against it and will probably do so again on future high-end gaming/studio models.
The USB-C/Thunderbolt port supports Dual-Link DisplayPort signals, directly connected to the NVIDIA Graphics. This makes proper docking station usage very convenient. The user still needs to connect the external power adaptor. Both ports (Thunderbolt and DC-in) are in the back of the laptop, making the whole setup appear very neat on the desk.

Q: How many PCIe lanes does the Thunderbolt 3 provide? Are they connected to CPU or Chipset?
A: XMG FUSION 15 supports Thunderbolt 3 with 4 lanes of PCIe 3.0. The lanes come from the chipset because all of the CPU lanes (x16) are fully occupied by the dedicated NVIDIA graphics. We are not aware of any side-effects of running Thunderbolt from the chipset. It is common practice for high-end laptops with high-end graphics. The Thunderbolt solution is of course fully validated and certified by Intel's Thunderbolt labs.

Q: Does it have a standby USB to power USB devices without turning on the laptop?
A: Yes, the USB-A port on the left side supports this feature.


LCD Screen


Q: Which LCD panel is being used? Are there plans for 1440p or 4K panels in the laptop? How about PWM flickering?
A: The panel is BOE NV156FHM-N4G. It is currently not known if the panel will change in later batches. This depends on logistics and stock. At any rate, the panel key specs will remain the same. There are currently no plans to offer resolutions above FHD in the current generation of this laptop.
There are very wide ranges on reports of Backlight Brightness PWM control on this panel in different laptops. Ranging from 200Hz to 1000Hz to no PWM at all - all on the same panel model number. Intel informs us that there are many factors (e.g. freq., display driver, BIOS settings implementation, type of dimmers & compatibility with the driver etc.) that impacts the quality of panel dimming performance. To Intel's knowledge, no kind of flickering has been reported during the validation process. Furthermore, first hands-on data from Notebookcheck indicates that no PWM occurs on this panel. With a DSLR test (multiple burst shots at 1/4000s exposure time) I can confirm that there is not a single frame of brightness dipping or black screen, not even at minimum LCD brightness. Hence, we can confirm: BOE NV156FHM-N4G in XMG FUSION 15 (with Intel) does not use PWM for backlight control.

Q: Some BTO shops, for an additional fee, manually pick out display panels with the least back-light bleed. Do you offer that? Even better, do you do that without the extra fee?
A: Intel has validated this design to avoid backlight bleed as much as possible. Currently no plans to do further binning. All dozens of MP samples we have seen so far have been exceptionally good.

Q: I'm coming from a 13" MacBook with Retina display. How am I going to fare with this 15.6" FHD screen in content creation?
A: If you got used to editing high-res visual content (photography, artwork) on your 13inch retina, things will change. On the one hand, your canvas will be larger and more convenient and ergonomic to work with. On the other hand, you will find yourself zooming in more often in order to make out fine-detail. Assuming that you have sharp 20:20 vision.
As it is, the screen resolution and specs are not planned to change within the lifetime of this product. The first realistic time-window for a refresh would be whenever Intel is releasing the next "H" series CPU generation. But even then, an upgrade on resolution will not be guaranteed.
Comparison:
Laptop Resolution Pixel per inch dot pitch
13.3" MacBook Pro Retina (late 2013) 2560x1600 226.98 PPI 0.1119mm
15.6" XMG FUSION 15 (late 2019) 1920x1080 141.21 PPI 0.1799mm
To compare: 141.21 is ~62% from 226.98. This represents the the metric difference in pixel density and peak sharpness between these two models.
If you know the diagonal size and resolution of your screen, you can make this comparison yourself with the DPI/PPI calculator.


Keyboard, Backlight, Switches, Layout


Q: What can you tell us about the mechanical keyboard of XMG FUSION 15?
A: The keyboard has already been reviewed in our XMG NEO series as being more crisp than typical membrane keyboards. Most reviewers attested it a very good score, both for gaming and for writing long texts.
The keyboard backlight can be configured per-key. Default mode is all white.
Keyboard Switch Specs:
Having no frame around the keycaps actually helps the thermals. The fans can pull in additional air from the top. This improves airflow and helps to keep the keyboard temperature at low levels during gaming. It also prevents long-term RMA issues on the keyboard. This specific keyboard switch is already in its 3rd generation and very mature by now.

Q: Is it possible to dampen the mechanical keyboard with o-rings?
A: The switch design does not lend itself to further dampening. The switch mechanic is too complex and has more moving parts than cherry. The 2mm travel distance also plays a role in not allowing more dampening.
For reference, please use this video (Youtube). We compared XMG NEO with another membrane-type keyboard. XMG NEO and FUSION share the same keyboard mechanics with the silent tactile switch and the same sound profile.

Q: Do you have LED keyboard backlight on the secondary key function, like Fn key icons?
A: Please have a look at this picture.
Btw, my working sample has blank keycaps. I took the 3 printed keycaps (F8, F9, F10) from a different sample just to demonstrate the Fn lighting for this picture.
Facts:
In my assesment, the Fn function symbols are clearly visible from the backlight in a dark room. A user should have no difficulty to recognize the icon and reach its function.

Q: Which keyboard layouts do you offer in the EU?
A: The following layouts are available, in alphabetic order: Belgium, Czech, Danish, Dvorak German, Dvorak US, Estonia, French, German, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Polish for Typists, Portuguese, Russia Latin, Slovakish, Spanish, Swedish / Finnish, Swiss, Turkish, UK, US International (ISO)All these layouts are based on the ISO matrix. See differences between ANSI vs. ISO here.


Operating System


Q: Do you support Linux and dual-boot on XMG FUSION 15?
A: We are in discussion to sell XMG FUSION 15 over Tuxedo with official Linux support. It might take 1 or 2 months to get this running.

Q: Which LAN, Audio and WiFi card vendors will be used? Asking for a friend.
A: From our HWiNFO64 report. (Google Drive link)
LAN: RealTek Semiconductor RTL8168/8111 [PCI\VEN_10EC&DEV_8168&SUBSYS_20868086&REV_15]Audio: Intel(R) Smart Sound Technology (Intel(R) SST) Audio Controller [PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_A348&SUBSYS_20868086&REV_10]WiFi: Intel(R) Wi-Fi 6 AX200 [PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_2723&SUBSYS_00848086&REV_1A], can be replaced.
For more information, please check the linked report file.


Other questions


Q: What would you say are the advantages and differences with other laptops due to the fact the laptop was designed in collaboration with Intel?
A: Disclaimer: I am \not* an Intel rep. The following remarks are based on my personal experience and opinion.*
Advantages:
  1. Very strict quality control on all levels. I can't quote numbers due to NDA, but Intel NUC has extremely low RMA rates, compared to average PC mainboards and systems. Intel is driven by strict internal regulation that strifes for perfection - this applies to the whole chassis, assembly and firmware, not only the mainboard. There are also certain regulations in place, for example in terms of electro-magnetic regulation and skin temperatures. The rating label is littered with regulatory seals from every region of the world, making this laptop especially safe to use.
  2. Access to high-quality material: we have not seen any Gaming Laptops based on Magnesium alloy yet, especially not in the ODM/LOEM ecosystem. The battery cells are also much more dense than what we usually see. Intel has the buying power and the vision to not settle for mediocre parts.
  3. Down-to-earth design: Intel has made this reference design for the ODM/LOEM eco-system. The design does not try to follow any specific corporate identity, thus it does not have any unneccessary "bling bling" like all the others have. Even the Razer Blade with it's sleek shape is quite obnoxious (iny my oppinion) with it's big backlit green snake logo. With XMG FUSION however, we can continue our typical style of "Undercover Gaming".
  4. Security: you can expect stellar support in terms of BIOS and Firmware (TPM, Management Engine) updates whenever any security issues are found. This might also apply to global brands, but ODM/LOEM systems have not always been so quick to react. This is due to the huge fragmentation/customizations in ODM/LOEM systems. Intel however does now allow any fragmentation: every LOEM partner is getting the same firmware. There are many hooks for configurations in this firmware, but the source code / binaries are always the same. This makes support much easier down the line.
Disadvantages:
  1. I can't name many, of course. But I would say the strict validation also makes the partnership less flexible from a product management perspective. There is no plan currently to phase-in any 4K or 300Hz screen (FHD/144Hz ought to be enough for everyone this year) or any Core i9 in this system. Other ODMs might be more open for costly modifications based on low quantities. Intel however has streamlined their production and logistics in a way that gives us (the LOEM) very short lead times and competitive pricing, but will not allow any short-notice upgrades or customizations.

Q: Will there be a 17 inch version?
A: We can neither confirm nor deny plans for a 17 inch version at this point.


[to be continued]
submitted by XMG_gg to XMG_gg [link] [comments]

Help with an error making an https request with c++

I'm attempting to do an HTTPS PUT from C++ on an ESP-EYE. I started with the C esp_https_example code and had that working with the same PEM and URL. I started to transition to using this from C++ as part of a project that is primarily written in C++. My call looks like:
```cpp static const char *URL = "https://signal.unexpectedeof.casa/on-air";
void https_with_url(void) { esp_http_client_config_t* config = (esp_http_client_config_t*)calloc(sizeof(esp_http_client_config_t), 1); config->url = URL; config->cert_pem = unexpectedeof_casa_root_cert_pem_start; config->event_handler = _http_event_handler;
esp_http_client_handle_t client = esp_http_client_init(config); esp_http_client_set_method(client, HTTP_METHOD_PUT); esp_err_t err = esp_http_client_perform(client); if (err == ESP_OK) { ESP_LOGI(TAG, "HTTPS Status = %d, content_length = %d", esp_http_client_get_status_code(client), esp_http_client_get_content_length(client)); } else { ESP_LOGE(TAG, "Error perform http request %s", esp_err_to_name(err)); } esp_http_client_close(client); esp_http_client_cleanup(client); 
} ```
I believe the URL I'm providing isn't being copied or initialized correctly resulting in a url parsing error. When the function https_with_url is called I get this error:
text E (13593) esp-tls: couldn't get hostname for :signal.unexpectedeof.casa: E (13593) esp-tls: Failed to open new connection E (13603) TRANS_SSL: Failed to open a new connection E (13603) HTTP_CLIENT: Connection failed, sock < 0 E (13613) HTTPS_HANDLING: Error perform http request ESP_ERR_HTTP_CONNECT I (13623) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED I (13623) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED
This is the full output from flash and monitor: ```text (38) tron:smalltalk n0mn0m$ idf.py --port /dev/cu.SLABUSBtoUART flash monitor Adding "flash"'s dependency "all" to list of commands with default set of options. Executing action: all (aliases: build) Running ninja in directory /Users/n0mn0m/projects/on-aivoice-assistant/smalltalk/build Executing "ninja all"... [1/3] Performing build step for 'bootloader' ninja: no work to do. Executing action: flash Running esptool.py in directory /Users/n0mn0m/projects/on-aivoice-assistant/smalltalk/build Executing "/Users/n0mn0m/.espressif/python_env/idf4.1_py3.8_env/bin/python /Users/n0mn0m/projects/esp-idf/components/esptool_py/esptool/esptool.py -p /dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART -b 460800 --before default_reset --after hard_reset --chip esp32 write_flash @flash_project_args"... esptool.py -p /dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART -b 460800 --before default_reset --after hard_reset --chip esp32 write_flash --flash_mode dio --flash_freq 80m --flash_size 2MB 0x8000 partition_table/partition-table.bin 0x1000 bootloadebootloader.bin 0x10000 smalltalk.bin esptool.py v2.9-dev Serial port /dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART Connecting........_ Chip is ESP32D0WDQ5 (revision 1) Features: WiFi, BT, Dual Core, 240MHz, VRef calibration in efuse, Coding Scheme None Crystal is 40MHz MAC: bc:dd:c2:d0:23:4c Uploading stub... Running stub... Stub running... Changing baud rate to 460800 Changed. Configuring flash size... Compressed 3072 bytes to 103... Wrote 3072 bytes (103 compressed) at 0x00008000 in 0.0 seconds (effective 2319.8 kbit/s)... Hash of data verified. Compressed 25776 bytes to 15970... Wrote 25776 bytes (15970 compressed) at 0x00001000 in 0.4 seconds (effective 562.7 kbit/s)... Hash of data verified. Compressed 950960 bytes to 601726... Wrote 950960 bytes (601726 compressed) at 0x00010000 in 14.0 seconds (effective 545.1 kbit/s)... Hash of data verified.
Leaving... Hard resetting via RTS pin... Executing action: monitor Running idf_monitor in directory /Users/n0mn0m/projects/on-aivoice-assistant/smalltalk Executing "/Users/n0mn0m/.espressif/python_env/idf4.1_py3.8_env/bin/python /Users/n0mn0m/projects/esp-idf/tools/idf_monitor.py -p /dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART -b 115200 --toolchain-prefix xtensa-esp32-elf- /Users/n0mn0m/projects/on-aivoice-assistant/smalltalk/build/smalltalk.elf -m '/Users/n0mn0m/.espressif/python_env/idf4.1_py3.8_env/bin/python' '/Users/n0mn0m/projects/esp-idf/tools/idf.py' '--port' '/dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART'"... --- idf_monitor on /dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART 115200 --- --- Quit: Ctrl+] | Menu: Ctrl+T | Help: Ctrl+T followed by Ctrl+H --- ets Jun 8 2016 00:22:57
rst:0x1 (POWERON_RESET),boot:0x13 (SPI_FAST_FLASH_BOOT) configsip: 0, SPIWP:0xee clk_drv:0x00,q_drv:0x00,d_drv:0x00,cs0_drv:0x00,hd_drv:0x00,wp_drv:0x00 mode:DIO, clock div:1 load:0x3fff0030,len:4 load:0x3fff0034,len:7348 load:0x40078000,len:13764 ho 0 tail 12 room 4 load:0x40080400,len:4568 0x40080400: _init at ??:?
entry 0x400806a4 I (31) boot: ESP-IDF v4.1-beta1-63-g9f024df9e 2nd stage bootloader I (31) boot: compile time 19:31:39 I (31) boot: chip revision: 1 I (35) boot_comm: chip revision: 1, min. bootloader chip revision: 0 I (42) qio_mode: Enabling default flash chip QIO I (47) boot.esp32: SPI Speed : 80MHz I (52) boot.esp32: SPI Mode : QIO I (57) boot.esp32: SPI Flash Size : 2MB I (61) boot: Enabling RNG early entropy source... I (67) boot: Partition Table: I (70) boot: ## Label Usage Type ST Offset Length I (77) boot: 0 nvs WiFi data 01 02 00009000 00006000 I (85) boot: 1 phy_init RF data 01 01 0000f000 00001000 I (92) boot: 2 factory factory app 00 00 00010000 00100000 I (100) boot: End of partition table I (104) boot_comm: chip revision: 1, min. application chip revision: 0 I (111) esp_image: segment 0: paddr=0x00010020 vaddr=0x3f400020 size=0x289f8 (166392) map I (169) esp_image: segment 1: paddr=0x00038a20 vaddr=0x3ffb0000 size=0x03914 ( 14612) load I (174) esp_image: segment 2: paddr=0x0003c33c vaddr=0x40080000 size=0x00404 ( 1028) load 0x40080000: _WindowOverflow4 at /Users/n0mn0m/projects/esp-idf/components/freertos/xtensa_vectors.S:1778
I (176) esp_image: segment 3: paddr=0x0003c748 vaddr=0x40080404 size=0x038d0 ( 14544) load I (190) esp_image: segment 4: paddr=0x00040020 vaddr=0x400d0020 size=0xa6224 (680484) map 0x400d0020: _stext at ??:?
I (394) esp_image: segment 5: paddr=0x000e624c vaddr=0x40083cd4 size=0x12040 ( 73792) load 0x40083cd4: bootloader_flash_gpio_config at /Users/n0mn0m/projects/esp-idf/components/bootloader_support/src/bootloader_flash_config_esp32.c:86
I (432) boot: Loaded app from partition at offset 0x10000 I (432) boot: Disabling RNG early entropy source... I (432) cpu_start: Pro cpu up. I (436) cpu_start: Application information: I (441) cpu_start: Project name: smalltalk I (446) cpu_start: App version: cbf78b2-dirty I (451) cpu_start: Compile time: Mar 28 2020 19:31:31 I (458) cpu_start: ELF file SHA256: 0049965a7b4339c3... I (464) cpu_start: ESP-IDF: v4.1-beta1-63-g9f024df9e I (470) cpu_start: Starting app cpu, entry point is 0x4008127c 0x4008127c: call_start_cpu1 at /Users/n0mn0m/projects/esp-idf/components/esp32/cpu_start.c:275
I (0) cpu_start: App cpu up. I (480) heap_init: Initializing. RAM available for dynamic allocation: I (487) heap_init: At 3FFAE6E0 len 00001920 (6 KiB): DRAM I (493) heap_init: At 3FFBD6B8 len 00022948 (138 KiB): DRAM I (500) heap_init: At 3FFE0440 len 00003AE0 (14 KiB): D/IRAM I (506) heap_init: At 3FFE4350 len 0001BCB0 (111 KiB): D/IRAM I (512) heap_init: At 40095D14 len 0000A2EC (40 KiB): IRAM I (518) cpu_start: Pro cpu start user code I (536) spi_flash: detected chip: generic I (536) spi_flash: flash io: qio W (536) spi_flash: Detected size(4096k) larger than the size in the binary image header(2048k). Using the size in the binary image header. I (547) cpu_start: Starting scheduler on PRO CPU. I (0) cpu_start: Starting scheduler on APP CPU. I (673) wifi: wifi driver task: 3ffcad94, prio:23, stack:3584, core=0 I (673) system_api: Base MAC address is not set, read default base MAC address from BLK0 of EFUSE I (673) system_api: Base MAC address is not set, read default base MAC address from BLK0 of EFUSE I (703) wifi: wifi firmware version: 551ce8d I (703) wifi: config NVS flash: enabled I (703) wifi: config nano formating: disabled I (703) wifi: Init dynamic tx buffer num: 32 I (703) wifi: Init data frame dynamic rx buffer num: 32 I (713) wifi: Init management frame dynamic rx buffer num: 32 I (713) wifi: Init management short buffer num: 32 I (723) wifi: Init static rx buffer size: 1600 I (723) wifi: Init static rx buffer num: 10 I (733) wifi: Init dynamic rx buffer num: 32 I (823) phy: phy_version: 4180, cb3948e, Sep 12 2019, 16:39:13, 0, 0 I (823) wifi: mode : sta (bc:dd:c2:d0:23:4c) I (863) I2S: DMA Malloc info, datalen=blocksize=600, dma_buf_count=3 I (863) I2S: DMA Malloc info, datalen=blocksize=600, dma_buf_count=3 I (873) I2S: PLL_D2: Req RATE: 16000, real rate: 16025.000, BITS: 16, CLKM: 39, BCK: 8, MCLK: 4096000.000, SCLK: 512800.000000, diva: 64, divb: 4 I (943) wifi: new:<1,0>, old:<1,0>, ap:<255,255>, sta:<1,0>, prof:1 I (943) wifi: state: init -> auth (b0) I (953) wifi: state: auth -> assoc (0) I (953) wifi: state: assoc -> run (10) I (963) wifi: connected with Hallow, aid = 1, channel 1, BW20, bssid = 18:e8:29:c4:90:55 I (963) wifi: security type: 3, phy: bgn, rssi: -41 I (973) wifi: pm start, type: 1
I (983) wifi: AP's beacon interval = 102400 us, DTIM period = 2 I (993) TF_LITE_AUDIO_PROVIDER: Audio Recording started Waking up Waking up E (13593) esp-tls: couldn't get hostname for :signal.unexpectedeof.casa: E (13593) esp-tls: Failed to open new connection E (13603) TRANS_SSL: Failed to open a new connection E (13603) HTTP_CLIENT: Connection failed, sock < 0 E (13613) HTTPS_HANDLING: Error perform http request ESP_ERR_HTTP_CONNECT I (13623) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED I (13623) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED E (14013) esp-tls: couldn't get hostname for :signal.unexpectedeof.casa: E (14013) esp-tls: Failed to open new connection E (14013) TRANS_SSL: Failed to open a new connection E (14013) HTTP_CLIENT: Connection failed, sock < 0 E (14023) HTTPS_HANDLING: Error perform http request ESP_ERR_HTTP_CONNECT I (14033) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED I (14033) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED E (14913) esp-tls: couldn't get hostname for :signal.unexpectedeof.casa: E (14913) esp-tls: Failed to open new connection E (14913) TRANS_SSL: Failed to open a new connection E (14923) HTTP_CLIENT: Connection failed, sock < 0 E (14923) HTTPS_HANDLING: Error perform http request ESP_ERR_HTTP_CONNECT I (14933) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED I (14933) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED E (15213) esp-tls: couldn't get hostname for :signal.unexpectedeof.casa: E (15213) esp-tls: Failed to open new connection E (15213) TRANS_SSL: Failed to open a new connection E (15223) HTTP_CLIENT: Connection failed, sock < 0 E (15223) HTTPS_HANDLING: Error perform http request ESP_ERR_HTTP_CONNECT I (15233) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED I (15233) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED E (15513) esp-tls: couldn't get hostname for :signal.unexpectedeof.casa: E (15513) esp-tls: Failed to open new connection E (15513) TRANS_SSL: Failed to open a new connection E (15513) HTTP_CLIENT: Connection failed, sock < 0 E (15523) HTTPS_HANDLING: Error perform http request ESP_ERR_HTTP_CONNECT I (15533) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED I (15533) HTTPS_HANDLING: HTTP_EVENT_DISCONNECTED ```
main init
http call
full build project
My current thinking is it's related to using C++ and the underlying parsing that's happening. The wifi is initialized and connected, the PEM and url work testing with the C example. Appreciate any help or ideas.
submitted by Tak_Locke to esp32 [link] [comments]

Part 2: Tools & Info for Sysadmins - Mega List of Tips, Tools, Books, Blogs & More

(continued from part 1)
Unlocker is a tool to help delete those irritating locked files that give you an error message like "cannot delete file" or "access is denied." It helps with killing processes, unloading DLLs, deleting index.dat files, as well as unlocking, deleting, renaming, and moving locked files—typically without requiring a reboot.
IIS Crypto's newest version adds advanced settings; registry backup; new, simpler templates; support for Windows Server 2019 and more. This tool lets you enable or disable protocols, ciphers, hashes and key exchange algorithms on Windows and reorder SSL/TLS cipher suites from IIS, change advanced settings, implement best practices with a single click, create custom templates and test your website. Available in both command line and GUI versions.
RocketDock is an application launcher with a clean interface that lets you drag/drop shortcuts for easy access and minimize windows to the dock. Features running application indicators, multi-monitor support, alpha-blended PNG and ICO icons, auto-hide and popup on mouse over, positioning and layering options. Fully customizable, portable, and compatible with MobyDock, ObjectDock, RK Launcher and Y'z Dock skins. Works even on slower computers and is Unicode compliant. Suggested by lieutenantcigarette: "If you like the dock on MacOS but prefer to use Windows, RocketDock has you covered. A superb and highly customisable dock that you can add your favourites to for easy and elegant access."
Baby FTP Server offers only the basics, but with the power to serve as a foundation for a more-complex server. Features include multi-threading, a real-time server log, support for PASV and non-PASV mode, ability to set permissions for download/upload/rename/delete/create directory. Only allows anonymous connections. Our thanks to FatherPrax for suggesting this one.
Strace is a Linux diagnostic, debugging and instructional userspace tool with a traditional command-line interface. Uses the ptrace kernel feature to monitor and tamper with interactions between processes and the kernel, including system calls, signal deliveries and changes of process state.
exa is a small, fast replacement for ls with more features and better defaults. It uses colors to distinguish file types and metadata, and it recognizes symlinks, extended attributes and Git. All in one single binary. phils_lab describes it as "'ls' on steroids, written in Rust."
rsync is a faster file transfer program for Unix to bring remote files into sync. It sends just the differences in the files across the link, without requiring both sets of files to be present at one of the ends. Suggested by zorinlynx, who adds that "rsync is GODLY for moving data around efficiently. And if an rsync is interrupted, just run it again."
Matter Wiki is a simple WYSIWYG wiki that can help teams store and collaborate. Every article gets filed under a topic, transparently, so you can tell who made what changes to which document and when. Thanks to bciar-iwdc for the recommendation.
LockHunter is a file unlocking tool that enables you to delete files that are being blocked for unknown reasons. Can be useful for fighting malware and other programs that are causing trouble. Deletes files into the recycle bin so you can restore them if necessary. Chucky2401 finds it preferable to Unlocker, "since I am on Windows 7. There are no new updates since July 2017, but the last beta was in June of this year."
aria2 is a lightweight multi-source command-line download utility that supports HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, SFTP, BitTorrent and Metalink. It can be manipulated via built-in JSON-RPC and XML-RPC interfaces. Recommended by jftuga, who appreciates it as a "cross-platform command line downloader (similar to wget or curl), but with the -x option can run a segmented download of a single file to increase throughput."
Free Services
Temp-Mail allows you to receive email at a temporary address that self-destructs after a certain period of time. Outwit all the forums, Wi-Fi owners, websites and blogs that insist you register to use them. Petti-The-Yeti says, "I don't give any company my direct email anymore. If I want to trial something but they ask for an email signup, I just grab a temporary email from here, sign up with it, and wait for the trial link or license info to come through. Then, you just download the file and close the website."
Duck DNS will point a DNS (sub domains of duckdns.org) to an IP of your choice. DDNS is a handy way for you to refer to a serverouter with an easily rememberable name for situations when the server's ip address will likely change. Suggested by xgnarf, who finds it "so much better for the free tier of noip—no 30-day nag to keep your host up."
Joe Sandbox detects and analyzes potential malicious files and URLs on Windows, Android, Mac OS, Linux and iOS for suspicious activities. It performs deep malware analysis and generates comprehensive and detailed reports. The Community Edition of Joe Sandbox Cloud allows you to run a maximum of 6 analyses per month, 3 per day on Windows, Linux and Android with limited analysis output. This one is from dangibbons94, who wanted to "share this cool service ... for malware analysis. I usually use Virus total for URL scanning, but this goes a lot more in depth. I just used basic analysis, which is free and enough for my needs."
Hybrid Analysis is a malware analysis service that detects and analyzes unknown threats for the community. This one was suggested by compupheonix, who adds that it "gets you super detailed reports... it's about the most fleshed out and detailed one I can find."
JustBeamIt is a file-transfer service that allows you to send files of any size via a peer-to-peer streaming model. Simply drag and drop your file and specify the recipient's email address. They will then receive a link that will trigger the download directly from your computer, so the file does not have to be uploaded to the service itself. The link is good for one download and expires after 10 minutes. Thanks to cooljacob204sfw for the recommendation!
ShieldsUP is a quick but powerful internet security checkup and information service. It was created by security researcher Steve Gibson to scan ports and let you know which ones have been opened through your firewalls or NAT routers.
Firefox Send is an encrypted file transfer service that allows you to share files up to 2.5GB from any browser or an Android app. Uses end-to-end encryption to keep data secure and offers security controls you can set. You can determine when your file link expires, the number of downloads, and whether to add a password. Your recipient receives a link to download the file, and they don’t need a Firefox account. This one comes from DePingus, who appreciates the focus on privacy. "They have E2E, expiring links, and a clear privacy policy."
Free DNS is a service where programmers share domain names with one another at no cost. Offers free hosting as well as dynamic DNS, static DNS, subdomain and domain hosting. They can host your domain's DNS as well as allowing you to register hostnames from domains they're hosting already. If you don't have a domain, you can sign up for a free account and create up to 5 subdomains off the domains others have contributed and point these hosts anywhere on the Internet. Thanks to 0x000000000000004C (yes, that's a username) for the suggestion!
ANY.RUN is an interactive malware analysis service for dynamic and static research of the majority of threats in any environment. It can provide a convenient in-depth analysis of new, unidentified malicious objects and help with the investigation of incidents. ImAshtonTurner appreciates it as "a great sandbox tool for viewing malware, etc."
Plik is a scalable, temporary file upload system similar to wetransfer that is written in golang. Thanks go to I_eat_Narwhals for this one!
Free My IP offers free, dynamic DNS. This service comes with no login, no ads, no newsletters, no links to click and no hassle. Kindly suggested by Jack of All Trades.
Mailinator provides free, temporary email inboxes on a receive-only, attachment-free system that requires no sign-up. All @mailinator.com addresses are public, readable and discoverable by anyone at any time—but are automatically deleted after a few hours. Can be a nice option for times when you to give out an address that won't be accessible longterm. Recommended by nachomountain, who's been using it "for years."
Magic Wormhole is a service for sending files directly with no intermediate upload, no web interface and no login. When both parties are online you with the minimal software installed, the wormhole is invoked via command line identifying the file you want to send. The server then provides a speakable, one-time-use password that you give the recipient. When they enter that password in their wormhole console, key exchange occurs and the download begins directly between your computers. rjohnson99 explains, "Magic Wormhole is sort of like JustBeamIt but is open-source and is built on Python. I use it a lot on Linux servers."
EveryCloud's Free Phish is our own, new Phishing Simulator. Once you've filled in the form and logged in, you can choose from lots of email templates (many of which we've coped from what we see in our Email Security business) and landing pages. Run a one-off free phish, then see who clicked or submitted data so you can understand where your organization is vulnerable and act accordingly.
Hardening Guides
CIS Hardening Guides contain the system security benchmarks developed by a global community of cybersecurity experts. Over 140 configuration guidelines are provided to help safeguard systems against threats. Recommended by cyanghost109 "to get a start on looking at hardening your own systems."
Podcasts
Daily Tech News is Tom Merrit's show covering the latest tech issues with some of the top experts in the field. With the focus on daily tech news and analysis, it's a great way to stay current. Thanks to EmoPolarbear for drawing it to our attention.
This Week in Enterprise Tech is a podcast that features IT experts explaining the complicated details of cutting-edge enterprise technology. Join host Lou Maresca on this informative exploration of enterprise solutions, with new episodes recorded every Friday afternoon.
Security Weekly is a podcast where a "bunch of security nerds" get together and talk shop. Topics are greatly varied, and the atmosphere is relaxed and conversational. The show typically tops out at 2 hours, which is perfect for those with a long commute. If you’re fascinated by discussion of deep technical and security-related topics, this may be a nice addition to your podcast repertoire.
Grumpy Old Geeks—What Went Wrong on the Internet and Who's To Blame is a podcast about the internet, technology and geek culture—among other things. The hosts bring their grumpy brand of humor to the "state of the world as they see it" in these roughly hour-long weekly episodes. Recommended by mkaxsnyder, who enjoys it because, "They are a good team that talk about recent and relevant topics from an IT perspective."
The Social-Engineer Podcast is a monthly discussion among the hosts—a group of security experts from SEORG—and a diverse assortment of guests. Topics focus around human behavior and how it affects information security, with new episodes released on the second Monday of every month. Thanks to MrAshRhodes for the suggestion.
The CyberWire podcasts discuss what's happening in cyberspace, providing news and commentary from industry experts. This cyber security-focused news service delivers concise, accessible, and relevant content without the gossip, sensationalism, and the marketing buzz that often distract from the stories that really matter. Appreciation to supermicromainboard for the suggestion.
Malicious Life is a podcast that tells the fascinating—and often unknown—stories of the wildest hacks you can ever imagine. Host Ran Levi, a cybersecurity expert and author, talks with the people who were actually involved to reveal the history of each event in depth. Our appreciation goes to peraphon for the recommendation.
The Broadcast Storm is a podcast for Cisco networking professionals. BluePieceOfPaper suggests it "for people studying for their CCNA/NP. Kevin Wallace is a CCIE Collaboration so he knows his *ishk. Good format for learning too. Most podcasts are about 8-15 mins long and its 'usually' an exam topic. It will be something like "HSPR" but instead of just explaining it super boring like Ben Stein reading a powerpoint, he usually goes into a story about how (insert time in his career) HSPR would have been super useful..."
Software Engineering Radio is a podcast for developers who are looking for an educational resource with original content that isn't recycled from other venues. Consists of conversations on relevant topics with experts from the software engineering world, with new episodes released three to four times per month. a9JDvXLWHumjaC tells us this is "a solid podcast for devs."
Books
System Center 2012 Configuration Manager is a comprehensive technical guide designed to help you optimize Microsoft's Configuration Manager 2012 according to your requirements and then to deploy and use it successfully. This methodical, step-by-step reference covers: the intentions behind the product and its role in the broader System Center product suite; planning, design, and implementation; and details on each of the most-important feature sets. Learn how to leverage the user-centric capabilities to provide anytime/anywhere services & software, while strengthening control and improving compliance.
Network Warrior: Everything You Need to Know That Wasn’t on the CCNA Exam is a practical guide to network infrastructure. Provides an in-depth view of routers and routing, switching (with Cisco Catalyst and Nexus switches as examples), SOHO VoIP and SOHO wireless access point design and configuration, introduction to IPv6 with configuration examples, telecom technologies in the data-networking world (including T1, DS3, frame relay, and MPLS), security, firewall theory and configuration, ACL and authentication, Quality of Service (QoS), with an emphasis on low-latency queuing (LLQ), IP address allocation, Network Time Protocol (NTP) and device failures.
Beginning the Linux Command Line is your ally in mastering Linux from the keyboard. It is intended for system administrators, software developers, and enthusiastic users who want a guide that will be useful for most distributions—i.e., all items have been checked against Ubuntu, Red Hat and SUSE. Addresses administering users and security and deploying firewalls. Updated to the latest versions of Linux to cover files and directories, including the Btrfs file system and its management and systemd boot procedure and firewall management with firewalld.
Modern Operating Systems, 4th Ed. is written for students taking intro courses on Operating Systems and for those who want an OS reference guide for work. The author, an OS researcher, includes both the latest materials on relevant operating systems as well as current research. The previous edition of Modern Operating Systems received the 2010 McGuffey Longevity Award that recognizes textbooks for excellence over time.
Time Management for System Administrators is a guide for organizing your approach to this challenging role in a way that improves your results. Bestselling author Thomas Limoncelli offers a collection of tips and techniques for navigating the competing goals and concurrent responsibilities that go along with working on large projects while also taking care of individual user's needs. The book focuses on strategies to help with daily tasks that will also allow you to handle the critical situations that inevitably require your attention. You'll learn how to manage interruptions, eliminate time wasters, keep an effective calendar, develop routines and prioritize, stay focused on the task at hand and document/automate to speed processes.
The Practice of System and Network Administration, 3rd Edition introduces beginners to advanced frameworks while serving as a guide to best practices in system administration that is helpful for even the most advanced experts. Organized into four major sections that build from the foundational elements of system administration through improved techniques for upgrades and change management to exploring assorted management topics. Covers the basics and then moves onto the advanced things that can be built on top of those basics to wield real power and execute difficult projects.
Learn Windows PowerShell in a Month of Lunches, Third Edition is designed to teach you PowerShell in a month's worth of 1-hour lessons. This updated edition covers PowerShell features that run on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 and later, PowerShell v3 and later, and it includes v5 features like PowerShellGet. For PowerShell v3 and up, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and later.
Troubleshooting with the Windows Sysinternals Tools is a guide to the powerful Sysinternals tools for diagnosing and troubleshooting issues. Sysinternals creator Mark Russinovich and Windows expert Aaron Margosis provide a deep understanding of Windows core concepts that aren’t well-documented elsewhere along with details on how to use Sysinternals tools to optimize any Windows system’s reliability, efficiency, performance and security. Includes an explanation of Sysinternals capabilities, details on each major tool, and examples of how the tools can be used to solve real-world cases involving error messages, hangs, sluggishness, malware infections and more.
DNS and BIND, 5th Ed. explains how to work with the Internet's distributed host information database—which is responsible for translating names into addresses, routing mail to its proper destination, and listing phone numbers according to the ENUM standard. Covers BIND 9.3.2 & 8.4.7, the what/how/why of DNS, name servers, MX records, subdividing domains (parenting), DNSSEC, TSIG, troubleshooting and more. PEPCK tells us this is "generally considered the DNS reference book (aside from the RFCs of course!)"
Windows PowerShell in Action, 3rd Ed. is a comprehensive guide to PowerShell. Written by language designer Bruce Payette and MVP Richard Siddaway, this volume gives a great introduction to Powershell, including everyday use cases and detailed examples for more-advanced topics like performance and module architecture. Covers workflows and classes, writing modules and scripts, desired state configuration and programming APIs/pipelines.This edition has been updated for PowerShell v6.
Zero Trust Networks: Building Secure Systems in Untrusted Networks explains the principles behind zero trust architecture, along with what's needed to implement it. Covers the evolution of perimeter-based defenses and how they evolved into the current broken model, case studies of zero trust in production networks on both the client and server side, example configurations for open-source tools that are useful for building a zero trust network and how to migrate from a perimeter-based network to a zero trust network in production. Kindly recommended by jaginfosec.
Tips
Here are a couple handy Windows shortcuts:
Here's a shortcut for a 4-pane explorer in Windows without installing 3rd-party software:
(Keep the win key down for the arrows, and no pauses.) Appreciation goes to ZAFJB for this one.
Our recent tip for a shortcut to get a 4-pane explorer in Windows, triggered this suggestion from SevaraB: "You can do that for an even larger grid of Windows by right-clicking the clock in the taskbar, and clicking 'Show windows side by side' to arrange them neatly. Did this for 4 rows of 6 windows when I had to have a quick 'n' dirty "video wall" of windows monitoring servers at our branches." ZAFJB adds that it actually works when you right-click "anywhere on the taskbar, except application icons or start button."
This tip comes courtesy of shipsass: "When I need to use Windows Explorer but I don't want to take my hands off the keyboard, I press Windows-E to launch Explorer and then Ctrl-L to jump to the address line and type my path. The Ctrl-L trick also works with any web browser, and it's an efficient way of talking less-technical people through instructions when 'browse to [location]' stumps them."
Clear browser history/cookies by pressing CTRL-SHIFT-DELETE on most major browsers. Thanks go to synapticpanda, who adds that this "saves me so much time when troubleshooting web apps where I am playing with the cache and such."
To rename a file with F2, while still editing the name of that file: Hit TAB to tab into the renaming of the next file. Thanks to abeeftaco for this one!
Alt-D is a reliable alternative to Ctrl-L for jumping to the address line in a browser. Thanks for this one go to fencepost_ajm, who explains: "Ctrl-L comes from the browser side as a shortcut for Location, Alt-D from the Windows Explorer side for Directory."
Browser shortcut: When typing a URL that ends with dot com, Ctrl + Enter will place the ".com" and take you to the page. Thanks to wpierre for this one!
This tip comes from anynonus, as something that daily that saves a few clicks: "Running a program with ctrl + shift + enter from start menu will start it as administrator (alt + y will select YES to run as admin) ... my user account is local admin [so] I don't feel like that is unsafe"
Building on our PowerShell resources, we received the following suggestion from halbaradkenafin: aka.ms/pskoans is "a way to learn PowerShell using PowerShell (and Pester). It's really cool and a bunch of folks have high praise for it (including a few teams within MSFT)."
Keyboard shortcut: If you already have an application open, hold ctrl + shift and middle click on the application in your task bar to open another instance as admin. Thanks go to Polymira for this one.
Remote Server Tip: "Critical advice. When testing out network configuration changes, prior to restarting the networking service or rebooting, always create a cron job that will restore your original network configuration and then reboot/restart networking on the machine after 5 minutes. If your config worked, you have enough time to remove it. If it didn't, it will fix itself. This is a beautifully simple solution that I learned from my old mentor at my very first job. I've held on to it for a long time." Thanks go to FrigidNox for the tip!
Websites
Deployment Research is the website of Johan Arwidmark, MS MVP in System Center Cloud and Datacenter Management. It is dedicated to sharing information and guidance around System Center, OS deployment, migration and more. The author shares tips and tricks to help improve the quality of IT Pros’ daily work.
Next of Windows is a website on (mostly) Microsoft-related technology. It's the place where Kent Chen—a computer veteran with many years of field experience—and Jonathan Hu—a web/mobile app developer and self-described "cool geek"—share what they know, what they learn and what they find in the hope of helping others learn and benefit.
High Scalability brings together all the relevant information about building scalable websites in one place. Because building a website with confidence requires a body of knowledge that can be slow to develop, the site focuses on moving visitors along the learning curve at a faster pace.
Information Technology Research Library is a great resource for IT-related research, white papers, reports, case studies, magazines, and eBooks. This library is provided at no charge by TradePub.com. GullibleDetective tells us it offers "free PDF files from a WIIIIIIDE variety of topics, not even just IT. Only caveat: as its a vendor-supported publishing company, you will have to give them a bit of information such as name, email address and possibly a company name. You undoubtedly have the ability to create fake information on this, mind you. The articles range from Excel templates, learning python, powershell, nosql etc. to converged architecture."
SS64 is a web-based reference guide for syntax and examples of the most-common database and OS computing commands. Recommended by Petti-The-Yeti, who adds, "I use this site all the time to look up commands and find examples while I'm building CMD and PS1 scripts."
Phishing and Malware Reporting. This website helps you put a stop to scams by getting fraudulent pages blocked. Easily report phishing webpages so they can be added to blacklists in as little as 15 minutes of your report. "Player024 tells us, "I highly recommend anyone in the industry to bookmark this page...With an average of about 10 minutes of work, I'm usually able to take down the phishing pages we receive thanks to the links posted on that website."
A Slack Channel
Windows Admin Slack is a great drive-by resource for the Windows sysadmin. This team has 33 public channels in total that cover different areas of helpful content on Windows administration.
Blogs
KC's Blog is the place where Microsoft MVP and web developer Kent Chen shares his IT insights and discoveries. The rather large library of posts offer helpful hints, how-tos, resources and news of interest to those in the Windows world.
The Windows Server Daily is the ever-current blog of technologist Katherine Moss, VP of open source & community engagement for StormlightTech. Offers brief daily posts on topics related to Windows server, Windows 10 and Administration.
An Infosec Slideshow
This security training slideshow was created for use during a quarterly infosec class. The content is offered generously by shalafi71, who adds, "Take this as a skeleton and flesh it out on your own. Take an hour or two and research the things I talk about. Tailor this to your own environment and users. Make it relevant to your people. Include corporate stories, include your audience, exclude yourself. This ain't about how smart you are at infosec, and I can't stress this enough, talk about how people can defend themselves. Give them things to look for and action they can take. No one gives a shit about your firewall rules."
Tech Tutorials
Tutorialspoint Library. This large collection of tech tutorials is a great resource for online learning. You'll find nearly 150 high-quality tutorials covering a wide array of languages and topics—from fundamentals to cutting-edge technologies. For example, this Powershell tutorial is designed for those with practical experience handling Windows-based Servers who want to learn how to install and use Windows Server 2012.
The Python Tutorial is a nice introduction to many of Python’s best features, enabling you to read and write Python modules and programs. It offers an understanding of the language's style and prepares you to learn more about the various Python library modules described in 'The Python Standard Library.' Kindly suggested by sharjeelsayed.
SysAdmin Humor
Day in the Life of a SysAdmin Episode 5: Lunch Break is an amusing look at a SysAdmin's attempt to take a brief lunch break. We imagine many of you can relate!
Have a fantastic week and as usual, let me know any comments or suggestions.
u/crispyducks
submitted by crispyducks to sysadmin [link] [comments]

Tools & Info for MSPs #2 - Mega List of Tips, Tools, Books, Blogs & More

(continued from part #1)
Unlocker is a tool to help delete those irritating locked files that give you an error message like "cannot delete file" or "access is denied." It helps with killing processes, unloading DLLs, deleting index.dat files, as well as unlocking, deleting, renaming, and moving locked files—typically without requiring a reboot.
IIS Crypto's newest version adds advanced settings; registry backup; new, simpler templates; support for Windows Server 2019 and more. This tool lets you enable or disable protocols, ciphers, hashes and key exchange algorithms on Windows and reorder SSL/TLS cipher suites from IIS, change advanced settings, implement best practices with a single click, create custom templates and test your website. Available in both command line and GUI versions.
RocketDock is an application launcher with a clean interface that lets you drag/drop shortcuts for easy access and minimize windows to the dock. Features running application indicators, multi-monitor support, alpha-blended PNG and ICO icons, auto-hide and popup on mouse over, positioning and layering options. Fully customizable, portable, and compatible with MobyDock, ObjectDock, RK Launcher and Y'z Dock skins. Works even on slower computers and is Unicode compliant. Suggested by lieutenantcigarette: "If you like the dock on MacOS but prefer to use Windows, RocketDock has you covered. A superb and highly customisable dock that you can add your favourites to for easy and elegant access."
Baby FTP Server offers only the basics, but with the power to serve as a foundation for a more-complex server. Features include multi-threading, a real-time server log, support for PASV and non-PASV mode, ability to set permissions for download/upload/rename/delete/create directory. Only allows anonymous connections. Our thanks to FatherPrax for suggesting this one.
Strace is a Linux diagnostic, debugging and instructional userspace tool with a traditional command-line interface. Uses the ptrace kernel feature to monitor and tamper with interactions between processes and the kernel, including system calls, signal deliveries and changes of process state.
exa is a small, fast replacement for ls with more features and better defaults. It uses colors to distinguish file types and metadata, and it recognizes symlinks, extended attributes and Git. All in one single binary. phils_lab describes it as "'ls' on steroids, written in Rust."
rsync is a faster file transfer program for Unix to bring remote files into sync. It sends just the differences in the files across the link, without requiring both sets of files to be present at one of the ends. Suggested by zorinlynx, who adds that "rsync is GODLY for moving data around efficiently. And if an rsync is interrupted, just run it again."
Matter Wiki is a simple WYSIWYG wiki that can help teams store and collaborate. Every article gets filed under a topic, transparently, so you can tell who made what changes to which document and when. Thanks to bciar-iwdc for the recommendation.
LockHunter is a file unlocking tool that enables you to delete files that are being blocked for unknown reasons. Can be useful for fighting malware and other programs that are causing trouble. Deletes files into the recycle bin so you can restore them if necessary. Chucky2401 finds it preferable to Unlocker, "since I am on Windows 7. There are no new updates since July 2017, but the last beta was in June of this year."
aria2 is a lightweight multi-source command-line download utility that supports HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, SFTP, BitTorrent and Metalink. It can be manipulated via built-in JSON-RPC and XML-RPC interfaces. Recommended by jftuga, who appreciates it as a "cross-platform command line downloader (similar to wget or curl), but with the -x option can run a segmented download of a single file to increase throughput."
Free Services
Temp-Mail allows you to receive email at a temporary address that self-destructs after a certain period of time. Outwit all the forums, Wi-Fi owners, websites and blogs that insist you register to use them. Petti-The-Yeti says, "I don't give any company my direct email anymore. If I want to trial something but they ask for an email signup, I just grab a temporary email from here, sign up with it, and wait for the trial link or license info to come through. Then, you just download the file and close the website."
Duck DNS will point a DNS (sub domains of duckdns.org) to an IP of your choice. DDNS is a handy way for you to refer to a serverouter with an easily rememberable name for situations when the server's ip address will likely change. Suggested by xgnarf, who finds it "so much better for the free tier of noip—no 30-day nag to keep your host up."
Joe Sandbox detects and analyzes potential malicious files and URLs on Windows, Android, Mac OS, Linux and iOS for suspicious activities. It performs deep malware analysis and generates comprehensive and detailed reports. The Community Edition of Joe Sandbox Cloud allows you to run a maximum of 6 analyses per month, 3 per day on Windows, Linux and Android with limited analysis output. This one is from dangibbons94, who wanted to "share this cool service ... for malware analysis. I usually use Virus total for URL scanning, but this goes a lot more in depth. I just used basic analysis, which is free and enough for my needs."
Hybrid Analysis is a malware analysis service that detects and analyzes unknown threats for the community. This one was suggested by compupheonix, who adds that it "gets you super detailed reports... it's about the most fleshed out and detailed one I can find."
JustBeamIt is a file-transfer service that allows you to send files of any size via a peer-to-peer streaming model. Simply drag and drop your file and specify the recipient's email address. They will then receive a link that will trigger the download directly from your computer, so the file does not have to be uploaded to the service itself. The link is good for one download and expires after 10 minutes. Thanks to cooljacob204sfw for the recommendation!
ShieldsUP is a quick but powerful internet security checkup and information service. It was created by security researcher Steve Gibson to scan ports and let you know which ones have been opened through your firewalls or NAT routers.
Firefox Send is an encrypted file transfer service that allows you to share files up to 2.5GB from any browser or an Android app. Uses end-to-end encryption to keep data secure and offers security controls you can set. You can determine when your file link expires, the number of downloads, and whether to add a password. Your recipient receives a link to download the file, and they don’t need a Firefox account. This one comes from DePingus, who appreciates the focus on privacy. "They have E2E, expiring links, and a clear privacy policy."
Free DNS is a service where programmers share domain names with one another at no cost. Offers free hosting as well as dynamic DNS, static DNS, subdomain and domain hosting. They can host your domain's DNS as well as allowing you to register hostnames from domains they're hosting already. If you don't have a domain, you can sign up for a free account and create up to 5 subdomains off the domains others have contributed and point these hosts anywhere on the Internet. Thanks to 0x000000000000004C (yes, that's a username) for the suggestion!
ANY.RUN is an interactive malware analysis service for dynamic and static research of the majority of threats in any environment. It can provide a convenient in-depth analysis of new, unidentified malicious objects and help with the investigation of incidents. ImAshtonTurner appreciates it as "a great sandbox tool for viewing malware, etc."
Plik is a scalable, temporary file upload system similar to wetransfer that is written in golang. Thanks go to I_eat_Narwhals for this one!
Free My IP offers free, dynamic DNS. This service comes with no login, no ads, no newsletters, no links to click and no hassle. Kindly suggested by Jack of All Trades.
Mailinator provides free, temporary email inboxes on a receive-only, attachment-free system that requires no sign-up. All @mailinator.com addresses are public, readable and discoverable by anyone at any time—but are automatically deleted after a few hours. Can be a nice option for times when you to give out an address that won't be accessible longterm. Recommended by nachomountain, who's been using it "for years."
Magic Wormhole is a service for sending files directly with no intermediate upload, no web interface and no login. When both parties are online you with the minimal software installed, the wormhole is invoked via command line identifying the file you want to send. The server then provides a speakable, one-time-use password that you give the recipient. When they enter that password in their wormhole console, key exchange occurs and the download begins directly between your computers. rjohnson99 explains, "Magic Wormhole is sort of like JustBeamIt but is open-source and is built on Python. I use it a lot on Linux servers."
EveryCloud's Free Phish is our own, new Phishing Simulator. Once you've filled in the form and logged in, you can choose from lots of email templates (many of which we've coped from what we see in our Email Security business) and landing pages. Run a one-off free phish, then see who clicked or submitted data so you can understand where your organization is vulnerable and act accordingly.
Hardening Guides
CIS Hardening Guides contain the system security benchmarks developed by a global community of cybersecurity experts. Over 140 configuration guidelines are provided to help safeguard systems against threats. Recommended by cyanghost109 "to get a start on looking at hardening your own systems."
Podcasts
Daily Tech News is Tom Merrit's show covering the latest tech issues with some of the top experts in the field. With the focus on daily tech news and analysis, it's a great way to stay current. Thanks to EmoPolarbear for drawing it to our attention.
This Week in Enterprise Tech is a podcast that features IT experts explaining the complicated details of cutting-edge enterprise technology. Join host Lou Maresca on this informative exploration of enterprise solutions, with new episodes recorded every Friday afternoon.
Security Weekly is a podcast where a "bunch of security nerds" get together and talk shop. Topics are greatly varied, and the atmosphere is relaxed and conversational. The show typically tops out at 2 hours, which is perfect for those with a long commute. If you’re fascinated by discussion of deep technical and security-related topics, this may be a nice addition to your podcast repertoire.
Grumpy Old Geeks—What Went Wrong on the Internet and Who's To Blame is a podcast about the internet, technology and geek culture—among other things. The hosts bring their grumpy brand of humor to the "state of the world as they see it" in these roughly hour-long weekly episodes. Recommended by mkaxsnyder, who enjoys it because, "They are a good team that talk about recent and relevant topics from an IT perspective."
The Social-Engineer Podcast is a monthly discussion among the hosts—a group of security experts from SEORG—and a diverse assortment of guests. Topics focus around human behavior and how it affects information security, with new episodes released on the second Monday of every month. Thanks to MrAshRhodes for the suggestion.
The CyberWire podcasts discuss what's happening in cyberspace, providing news and commentary from industry experts. This cyber security-focused news service delivers concise, accessible, and relevant content without the gossip, sensationalism, and the marketing buzz that often distract from the stories that really matter. Appreciation to supermicromainboard for the suggestion.
Malicious Life is a podcast that tells the fascinating—and often unknown—stories of the wildest hacks you can ever imagine. Host Ran Levi, a cybersecurity expert and author, talks with the people who were actually involved to reveal the history of each event in depth. Our appreciation goes to peraphon for the recommendation.
The Broadcast Storm is a podcast for Cisco networking professionals. BluePieceOfPaper suggests it "for people studying for their CCNA/NP. Kevin Wallace is a CCIE Collaboration so he knows his *ishk. Good format for learning too. Most podcasts are about 8-15 mins long and its 'usually' an exam topic. It will be something like "HSPR" but instead of just explaining it super boring like Ben Stein reading a powerpoint, he usually goes into a story about how (insert time in his career) HSPR would have been super useful..."
Software Engineering Radio is a podcast for developers who are looking for an educational resource with original content that isn't recycled from other venues. Consists of conversations on relevant topics with experts from the software engineering world, with new episodes released three to four times per month. a9JDvXLWHumjaC tells us this is "a solid podcast for devs."
Books
System Center 2012 Configuration Manager is a comprehensive technical guide designed to help you optimize Microsoft's Configuration Manager 2012 according to your requirements and then to deploy and use it successfully. This methodical, step-by-step reference covers: the intentions behind the product and its role in the broader System Center product suite; planning, design, and implementation; and details on each of the most-important feature sets. Learn how to leverage the user-centric capabilities to provide anytime/anywhere services & software, while strengthening control and improving compliance.
Network Warrior: Everything You Need to Know That Wasn’t on the CCNA Exam is a practical guide to network infrastructure. Provides an in-depth view of routers and routing, switching (with Cisco Catalyst and Nexus switches as examples), SOHO VoIP and SOHO wireless access point design and configuration, introduction to IPv6 with configuration examples, telecom technologies in the data-networking world (including T1, DS3, frame relay, and MPLS), security, firewall theory and configuration, ACL and authentication, Quality of Service (QoS), with an emphasis on low-latency queuing (LLQ), IP address allocation, Network Time Protocol (NTP) and device failures.
Beginning the Linux Command Line is your ally in mastering Linux from the keyboard. It is intended for system administrators, software developers, and enthusiastic users who want a guide that will be useful for most distributions—i.e., all items have been checked against Ubuntu, Red Hat and SUSE. Addresses administering users and security and deploying firewalls. Updated to the latest versions of Linux to cover files and directories, including the Btrfs file system and its management and systemd boot procedure and firewall management with firewalld.
Modern Operating Systems, 4th Ed. is written for students taking intro courses on Operating Systems and for those who want an OS reference guide for work. The author, an OS researcher, includes both the latest materials on relevant operating systems as well as current research. The previous edition of Modern Operating Systems received the 2010 McGuffey Longevity Award that recognizes textbooks for excellence over time.
Time Management for System Administrators is a guide for organizing your approach to this challenging role in a way that improves your results. Bestselling author Thomas Limoncelli offers a collection of tips and techniques for navigating the competing goals and concurrent responsibilities that go along with working on large projects while also taking care of individual user's needs. The book focuses on strategies to help with daily tasks that will also allow you to handle the critical situations that inevitably require your attention. You'll learn how to manage interruptions, eliminate time wasters, keep an effective calendar, develop routines and prioritize, stay focused on the task at hand and document/automate to speed processes.
The Practice of System and Network Administration, 3rd Edition introduces beginners to advanced frameworks while serving as a guide to best practices in system administration that is helpful for even the most advanced experts. Organized into four major sections that build from the foundational elements of system administration through improved techniques for upgrades and change management to exploring assorted management topics. Covers the basics and then moves onto the advanced things that can be built on top of those basics to wield real power and execute difficult projects.
Learn Windows PowerShell in a Month of Lunches, Third Edition is designed to teach you PowerShell in a month's worth of 1-hour lessons. This updated edition covers PowerShell features that run on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 and later, PowerShell v3 and later, and it includes v5 features like PowerShellGet. For PowerShell v3 and up, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and later.
Troubleshooting with the Windows Sysinternals Tools is a guide to the powerful Sysinternals tools for diagnosing and troubleshooting issues. Sysinternals creator Mark Russinovich and Windows expert Aaron Margosis provide a deep understanding of Windows core concepts that aren’t well-documented elsewhere along with details on how to use Sysinternals tools to optimize any Windows system’s reliability, efficiency, performance and security. Includes an explanation of Sysinternals capabilities, details on each major tool, and examples of how the tools can be used to solve real-world cases involving error messages, hangs, sluggishness, malware infections and more.
DNS and BIND, 5th Ed. explains how to work with the Internet's distributed host information database—which is responsible for translating names into addresses, routing mail to its proper destination, and listing phone numbers according to the ENUM standard. Covers BIND 9.3.2 & 8.4.7, the what/how/why of DNS, name servers, MX records, subdividing domains (parenting), DNSSEC, TSIG, troubleshooting and more. PEPCK tells us this is "generally considered the DNS reference book (aside from the RFCs of course!)"
Windows PowerShell in Action, 3rd Ed. is a comprehensive guide to PowerShell. Written by language designer Bruce Payette and MVP Richard Siddaway, this volume gives a great introduction to Powershell, including everyday use cases and detailed examples for more-advanced topics like performance and module architecture. Covers workflows and classes, writing modules and scripts, desired state configuration and programming APIs/pipelines.This edition has been updated for PowerShell v6.
Zero Trust Networks: Building Secure Systems in Untrusted Networks explains the principles behind zero trust architecture, along with what's needed to implement it. Covers the evolution of perimeter-based defenses and how they evolved into the current broken model, case studies of zero trust in production networks on both the client and server side, example configurations for open-source tools that are useful for building a zero trust network and how to migrate from a perimeter-based network to a zero trust network in production. Kindly recommended by jaginfosec.
Tips
Here are a couple handy Windows shortcuts:
Here's a shortcut for a 4-pane explorer in Windows without installing 3rd-party software:
(Keep the win key down for the arrows, and no pauses.) Appreciation goes to ZAFJB for this one.
Our recent tip for a shortcut to get a 4-pane explorer in Windows, triggered this suggestion from SevaraB: "You can do that for an even larger grid of Windows by right-clicking the clock in the taskbar, and clicking 'Show windows side by side' to arrange them neatly. Did this for 4 rows of 6 windows when I had to have a quick 'n' dirty "video wall" of windows monitoring servers at our branches." ZAFJB adds that it actually works when you right-click "anywhere on the taskbar, except application icons or start button."
This tip comes courtesy of shipsass: "When I need to use Windows Explorer but I don't want to take my hands off the keyboard, I press Windows-E to launch Explorer and then Ctrl-L to jump to the address line and type my path. The Ctrl-L trick also works with any web browser, and it's an efficient way of talking less-technical people through instructions when 'browse to [location]' stumps them."
Clear browser history/cookies by pressing CTRL-SHIFT-DELETE on most major browsers. Thanks go to synapticpanda, who adds that this "saves me so much time when troubleshooting web apps where I am playing with the cache and such."
To rename a file with F2, while still editing the name of that file: Hit TAB to tab into the renaming of the next file. Thanks to abeeftaco for this one!
Alt-D is a reliable alternative to Ctrl-L for jumping to the address line in a browser. Thanks for this one go to fencepost_ajm, who explains: "Ctrl-L comes from the browser side as a shortcut for Location, Alt-D from the Windows Explorer side for Directory."
Browser shortcut: When typing a URL that ends with dot com, Ctrl + Enter will place the ".com" and take you to the page. Thanks to wpierre for this one!
This tip comes from anynonus, as something that daily that saves a few clicks: "Running a program with ctrl + shift + enter from start menu will start it as administrator (alt + y will select YES to run as admin) ... my user account is local admin [so] I don't feel like that is unsafe"
Building on our PowerShell resources, we received the following suggestion from halbaradkenafin: aka.ms/pskoans is "a way to learn PowerShell using PowerShell (and Pester). It's really cool and a bunch of folks have high praise for it (including a few teams within MSFT)."
Keyboard shortcut: If you already have an application open, hold ctrl + shift and middle click on the application in your task bar to open another instance as admin. Thanks go to Polymira for this one.
Remote Server Tip: "Critical advice. When testing out network configuration changes, prior to restarting the networking service or rebooting, always create a cron job that will restore your original network configuration and then reboot/restart networking on the machine after 5 minutes. If your config worked, you have enough time to remove it. If it didn't, it will fix itself. This is a beautifully simple solution that I learned from my old mentor at my very first job. I've held on to it for a long time." Thanks go to FrigidNox for the tip!
Websites
Deployment Research is the website of Johan Arwidmark, MS MVP in System Center Cloud and Datacenter Management. It is dedicated to sharing information and guidance around System Center, OS deployment, migration and more. The author shares tips and tricks to help improve the quality of IT Pros’ daily work.
Next of Windows is a website on (mostly) Microsoft-related technology. It's the place where Kent Chen—a computer veteran with many years of field experience—and Jonathan Hu—a web/mobile app developer and self-described "cool geek"—share what they know, what they learn and what they find in the hope of helping others learn and benefit.
High Scalability brings together all the relevant information about building scalable websites in one place. Because building a website with confidence requires a body of knowledge that can be slow to develop, the site focuses on moving visitors along the learning curve at a faster pace.
Information Technology Research Library is a great resource for IT-related research, white papers, reports, case studies, magazines, and eBooks. This library is provided at no charge by TradePub.com. GullibleDetective tells us it offers "free PDF files from a WIIIIIIDE variety of topics, not even just IT. Only caveat: as its a vendor-supported publishing company, you will have to give them a bit of information such as name, email address and possibly a company name. You undoubtedly have the ability to create fake information on this, mind you. The articles range from Excel templates, learning python, powershell, nosql etc. to converged architecture."
SS64 is a web-based reference guide for syntax and examples of the most-common database and OS computing commands. Recommended by Petti-The-Yeti, who adds, "I use this site all the time to look up commands and find examples while I'm building CMD and PS1 scripts."
Phishing and Malware Reporting. This website helps you put a stop to scams by getting fraudulent pages blocked. Easily report phishing webpages so they can be added to blacklists in as little as 15 minutes of your report. "Player024 tells us, "I highly recommend anyone in the industry to bookmark this page...With an average of about 10 minutes of work, I'm usually able to take down the phishing pages we receive thanks to the links posted on that website."
A Slack Channel
Windows Admin Slack is a great drive-by resource for the Windows sysadmin. This team has 33 public channels in total that cover different areas of helpful content on Windows administration.
Blogs
KC's Blog is the place where Microsoft MVP and web developer Kent Chen shares his IT insights and discoveries. The rather large library of posts offer helpful hints, how-tos, resources and news of interest to those in the Windows world.
The Windows Server Daily is the ever-current blog of technologist Katherine Moss, VP of open source & community engagement for StormlightTech. Offers brief daily posts on topics related to Windows server, Windows 10 and Administration.
An Infosec Slideshow
This security training slideshow was created for use during a quarterly infosec class. The content is offered generously by shalafi71, who adds, "Take this as a skeleton and flesh it out on your own. Take an hour or two and research the things I talk about. Tailor this to your own environment and users. Make it relevant to your people. Include corporate stories, include your audience, exclude yourself. This ain't about how smart you are at infosec, and I can't stress this enough, talk about how people can defend themselves. Give them things to look for and action they can take. No one gives a shit about your firewall rules."
Tech Tutorials
Tutorialspoint Library. This large collection of tech tutorials is a great resource for online learning. You'll find nearly 150 high-quality tutorials covering a wide array of languages and topics—from fundamentals to cutting-edge technologies. For example, this Powershell tutorial is designed for those with practical experience handling Windows-based Servers who want to learn how to install and use Windows Server 2012.
The Python Tutorial is a nice introduction to many of Python’s best features, enabling you to read and write Python modules and programs. It offers an understanding of the language's style and prepares you to learn more about the various Python library modules described in 'The Python Standard Library.' Kindly suggested by sharjeelsayed.
SysAdmin Humor
Day in the Life of a SysAdmin Episode 5: Lunch Break is an amusing look at a SysAdmin's attempt to take a brief lunch break. We imagine many of you can relate!
Have a fantastic week and as usual, let me know any comments.
Graham | CEO | EveryCloud
Fyi - I've set up a subreddit /itprotuesday, where we feature / encourage posts of some additional tools, tips etc. throughout the week. Pop over and subscribe if you’re interested.
submitted by crispyducks to msp [link] [comments]

IT Pro Tuesday #64 (part 2) - Mega List of Tips, Tools, Books, Blogs & More

(continued from part 1)
Captura is a flexible tool for capturing your screen, audio, cursor, mouse clicks and keystrokes. Features include mixing audio recorded from microphone and speaker output, command-line interface, and configurable hotkeys. Thanks to jantari for the recommedation.
Unlocker is a tool to help delete those irritating locked files that give you an error message like "cannot delete file" or "access is denied." It helps with killing processes, unloading DLLs, deleting index.dat files, as well as unlocking, deleting, renaming, and moving locked files—typically without requiring a reboot.
IIS Crypto's newest version adds advanced settings; registry backup; new, simpler templates; support for Windows Server 2019 and more. This tool lets you enable or disable protocols, ciphers, hashes and key exchange algorithms on Windows and reorder SSL/TLS cipher suites from IIS, change advanced settings, implement best practices with a single click, create custom templates and test your website. Available in both command line and GUI versions.
RocketDock is an application launcher with a clean interface that lets you drag/drop shortcuts for easy access and minimize windows to the dock. Features running application indicators, multi-monitor support, alpha-blended PNG and ICO icons, auto-hide and popup on mouse over, positioning and layering options. Fully customizable, portable, and compatible with MobyDock, ObjectDock, RK Launcher and Y'z Dock skins. Works even on slower computers and is Unicode compliant. Suggested by lieutenantcigarette: "If you like the dock on MacOS but prefer to use Windows, RocketDock has you covered. A superb and highly customisable dock that you can add your favourites to for easy and elegant access."
Baby FTP Server offers only the basics, but with the power to serve as a foundation for a more-complex server. Features include multi-threading, a real-time server log, support for PASV and non-PASV mode, ability to set permissions for download/upload/rename/delete/create directory. Only allows anonymous connections. Our thanks to FatherPrax for suggesting this one.
Strace is a Linux diagnostic, debugging and instructional userspace tool with a traditional command-line interface. Uses the ptrace kernel feature to monitor and tamper with interactions between processes and the kernel, including system calls, signal deliveries and changes of process state.
exa is a small, fast replacement for ls with more features and better defaults. It uses colors to distinguish file types and metadata, and it recognizes symlinks, extended attributes and Git. All in one single binary. phils_lab describes it as "'ls' on steroids, written in Rust."
rsync is a faster file transfer program for Unix to bring remote files into sync. It sends just the differences in the files across the link, without requiring both sets of files to be present at one of the ends. Suggested by zorinlynx, who adds that "rsync is GODLY for moving data around efficiently. And if an rsync is interrupted, just run it again."
Matter Wiki is a simple WYSIWYG wiki that can help teams store and collaborate. Every article gets filed under a topic, transparently, so you can tell who made what changes to which document and when. Thanks to bciar-iwdc for the recommendation.
LockHunter is a file unlocking tool that enables you to delete files that are being blocked for unknown reasons. Can be useful for fighting malware and other programs that are causing trouble. Deletes files into the recycle bin so you can restore them if necessary. Chucky2401 finds it preferable to Unlocker, "since I am on Windows 7. There are no new updates since July 2017, but the last beta was in June of this year."
aria2 is a lightweight multi-source command-line download utility that supports HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, SFTP, BitTorrent and Metalink. It can be manipulated via built-in JSON-RPC and XML-RPC interfaces. Recommended by jftuga, who appreciates it as a "cross-platform command line downloader (similar to wget or curl), but with the -x option can run a segmented download of a single file to increase throughput."
Free Services
Temp-Mail allows you to receive email at a temporary address that self-destructs after a certain period of time. Outwit all the forums, Wi-Fi owners, websites and blogs that insist you register to use them. Petti-The-Yeti says, "I don't give any company my direct email anymore. If I want to trial something but they ask for an email signup, I just grab a temporary email from here, sign up with it, and wait for the trial link or license info to come through. Then, you just download the file and close the website."
Duck DNS will point a DNS (sub domains of duckdns.org) to an IP of your choice. DDNS is a handy way for you to refer to a serverouter with an easily rememberable name for situations when the server's ip address will likely change. Suggested by xgnarf, who finds it "so much better for the free tier of noip—no 30-day nag to keep your host up."
Joe Sandbox detects and analyzes potential malicious files and URLs on Windows, Android, Mac OS, Linux and iOS for suspicious activities. It performs deep malware analysis and generates comprehensive and detailed reports. The Community Edition of Joe Sandbox Cloud allows you to run a maximum of 6 analyses per month, 3 per day on Windows, Linux and Android with limited analysis output. This one is from dangibbons94, who wanted to "share this cool service ... for malware analysis. I usually use Virus total for URL scanning, but this goes a lot more in depth. I just used basic analysis, which is free and enough for my needs."
Hybrid Analysis is a malware analysis service that detects and analyzes unknown threats for the community. This one was suggested by compupheonix, who adds that it "gets you super detailed reports... it's about the most fleshed out and detailed one I can find."
JustBeamIt is a file-transfer service that allows you to send files of any size via a peer-to-peer streaming model. Simply drag and drop your file and specify the recipient's email address. They will then receive a link that will trigger the download directly from your computer, so the file does not have to be uploaded to the service itself. The link is good for one download and expires after 10 minutes. Thanks to cooljacob204sfw for the recommendation!
ShieldsUP is a quick but powerful internet security checkup and information service. It was created by security researcher Steve Gibson to scan ports and let you know which ones have been opened through your firewalls or NAT routers.
Firefox Send is an encrypted file transfer service that allows you to share files up to 2.5GB from any browser or an Android app. Uses end-to-end encryption to keep data secure and offers security controls you can set. You can determine when your file link expires, the number of downloads, and whether to add a password. Your recipient receives a link to download the file, and they don’t need a Firefox account. This one comes from DePingus, who appreciates the focus on privacy. "They have E2E, expiring links, and a clear privacy policy."
Free DNS is a service where programmers share domain names with one another at no cost. Offers free hosting as well as dynamic DNS, static DNS, subdomain and domain hosting. They can host your domain's DNS as well as allowing you to register hostnames from domains they're hosting already. If you don't have a domain, you can sign up for a free account and create up to 5 subdomains off the domains others have contributed and point these hosts anywhere on the Internet. Thanks to 0x000000000000004C (yes, that's a username) for the suggestion!
ANY.RUN is an interactive malware analysis service for dynamic and static research of the majority of threats in any environment. It can provide a convenient in-depth analysis of new, unidentified malicious objects and help with the investigation of incidents. ImAshtonTurner appreciates it as "a great sandbox tool for viewing malware, etc."
Plik is a scalable, temporary file upload system similar to wetransfer that is written in golang. Thanks go to I_eat_Narwhals for this one!
Free My IP offers free, dynamic DNS. This service comes with no login, no ads, no newsletters, no links to click and no hassle. Kindly suggested by Jack of All Trades.
Mailinator provides free, temporary email inboxes on a receive-only, attachment-free system that requires no sign-up. All @mailinator.com addresses are public, readable and discoverable by anyone at any time—but are automatically deleted after a few hours. Can be a nice option for times when you to give out an address that won't be accessible longterm. Recommended by nachomountain, who's been using it "for years."
Magic Wormhole is a service for sending files directly with no intermediate upload, no web interface and no login. When both parties are online you with the minimal software installed, the wormhole is invoked via command line identifying the file you want to send. The server then provides a speakable, one-time-use password that you give the recipient. When they enter that password in their wormhole console, key exchange occurs and the download begins directly between your computers. rjohnson99 explains, "Magic Wormhole is sort of like JustBeamIt but is open-source and is built on Python. I use it a lot on Linux servers."
EveryCloud's Free Phish is our own, new Phishing Simulator. Once you've filled in the form and logged in, you can choose from lots of email templates (many of which we've coped from what we see in our Email Security business) and landing pages. Run a one-off free phish, then see who clicked or submitted data so you can understand where your organization is vulnerable and act accordingly.
Hardening Guides
CIS Hardening Guides contain the system security benchmarks developed by a global community of cybersecurity experts. Over 140 configuration guidelines are provided to help safeguard systems against threats. Recommended by cyanghost109 "to get a start on looking at hardening your own systems."
Podcasts
Daily Tech News is Tom Merrit's show covering the latest tech issues with some of the top experts in the field. With the focus on daily tech news and analysis, it's a great way to stay current. Thanks to EmoPolarbear for drawing it to our attention.
This Week in Enterprise Tech is a podcast that features IT experts explaining the complicated details of cutting-edge enterprise technology. Join host Lou Maresca on this informative exploration of enterprise solutions, with new episodes recorded every Friday afternoon.
Security Weekly is a podcast where a "bunch of security nerds" get together and talk shop. Topics are greatly varied, and the atmosphere is relaxed and conversational. The show typically tops out at 2 hours, which is perfect for those with a long commute. If you’re fascinated by discussion of deep technical and security-related topics, this may be a nice addition to your podcast repertoire.
Grumpy Old Geeks—What Went Wrong on the Internet and Who's To Blame is a podcast about the internet, technology and geek culture—among other things. The hosts bring their grumpy brand of humor to the "state of the world as they see it" in these roughly hour-long weekly episodes. Recommended by mkaxsnyder, who enjoys it because, "They are a good team that talk about recent and relevant topics from an IT perspective."
The Social-Engineer Podcast is a monthly discussion among the hosts—a group of security experts from SEORG—and a diverse assortment of guests. Topics focus around human behavior and how it affects information security, with new episodes released on the second Monday of every month. Thanks to MrAshRhodes for the suggestion.
The CyberWire podcasts discuss what's happening in cyberspace, providing news and commentary from industry experts. This cyber security-focused news service delivers concise, accessible, and relevant content without the gossip, sensationalism, and the marketing buzz that often distract from the stories that really matter. Appreciation to supermicromainboard for the suggestion.
Malicious Life is a podcast that tells the fascinating—and often unknown—stories of the wildest hacks you can ever imagine. Host Ran Levi, a cybersecurity expert and author, talks with the people who were actually involved to reveal the history of each event in depth. Our appreciation goes to peraphon for the recommendation.
The Broadcast Storm is a podcast for Cisco networking professionals. BluePieceOfPaper suggests it "for people studying for their CCNA/NP. Kevin Wallace is a CCIE Collaboration so he knows his *ishk. Good format for learning too. Most podcasts are about 8-15 mins long and its 'usually' an exam topic. It will be something like "HSPR" but instead of just explaining it super boring like Ben Stein reading a powerpoint, he usually goes into a story about how (insert time in his career) HSPR would have been super useful..."
Software Engineering Radio is a podcast for developers who are looking for an educational resource with original content that isn't recycled from other venues. Consists of conversations on relevant topics with experts from the software engineering world, with new episodes released three to four times per month. a9JDvXLWHumjaC tells us this is "a solid podcast for devs."
Books
System Center 2012 Configuration Manager is a comprehensive technical guide designed to help you optimize Microsoft's Configuration Manager 2012 according to your requirements and then to deploy and use it successfully. This methodical, step-by-step reference covers: the intentions behind the product and its role in the broader System Center product suite; planning, design, and implementation; and details on each of the most-important feature sets. Learn how to leverage the user-centric capabilities to provide anytime/anywhere services & software, while strengthening control and improving compliance.
Network Warrior: Everything You Need to Know That Wasn’t on the CCNA Exam is a practical guide to network infrastructure. Provides an in-depth view of routers and routing, switching (with Cisco Catalyst and Nexus switches as examples), SOHO VoIP and SOHO wireless access point design and configuration, introduction to IPv6 with configuration examples, telecom technologies in the data-networking world (including T1, DS3, frame relay, and MPLS), security, firewall theory and configuration, ACL and authentication, Quality of Service (QoS), with an emphasis on low-latency queuing (LLQ), IP address allocation, Network Time Protocol (NTP) and device failures.
Beginning the Linux Command Line is your ally in mastering Linux from the keyboard. It is intended for system administrators, software developers, and enthusiastic users who want a guide that will be useful for most distributions—i.e., all items have been checked against Ubuntu, Red Hat and SUSE. Addresses administering users and security and deploying firewalls. Updated to the latest versions of Linux to cover files and directories, including the Btrfs file system and its management and systemd boot procedure and firewall management with firewalld.
Modern Operating Systems, 4th Ed. is written for students taking intro courses on Operating Systems and for those who want an OS reference guide for work. The author, an OS researcher, includes both the latest materials on relevant operating systems as well as current research. The previous edition of Modern Operating Systems received the 2010 McGuffey Longevity Award that recognizes textbooks for excellence over time.
Time Management for System Administrators is a guide for organizing your approach to this challenging role in a way that improves your results. Bestselling author Thomas Limoncelli offers a collection of tips and techniques for navigating the competing goals and concurrent responsibilities that go along with working on large projects while also taking care of individual user's needs. The book focuses on strategies to help with daily tasks that will also allow you to handle the critical situations that inevitably require your attention. You'll learn how to manage interruptions, eliminate time wasters, keep an effective calendar, develop routines and prioritize, stay focused on the task at hand and document/automate to speed processes.
The Practice of System and Network Administration, 3rd Edition introduces beginners to advanced frameworks while serving as a guide to best practices in system administration that is helpful for even the most advanced experts. Organized into four major sections that build from the foundational elements of system administration through improved techniques for upgrades and change management to exploring assorted management topics. Covers the basics and then moves onto the advanced things that can be built on top of those basics to wield real power and execute difficult projects.
Learn Windows PowerShell in a Month of Lunches, Third Edition is designed to teach you PowerShell in a month's worth of 1-hour lessons. This updated edition covers PowerShell features that run on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 and later, PowerShell v3 and later, and it includes v5 features like PowerShellGet. For PowerShell v3 and up, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and later.
Troubleshooting with the Windows Sysinternals Tools is a guide to the powerful Sysinternals tools for diagnosing and troubleshooting issues. Sysinternals creator Mark Russinovich and Windows expert Aaron Margosis provide a deep understanding of Windows core concepts that aren’t well-documented elsewhere along with details on how to use Sysinternals tools to optimize any Windows system’s reliability, efficiency, performance and security. Includes an explanation of Sysinternals capabilities, details on each major tool, and examples of how the tools can be used to solve real-world cases involving error messages, hangs, sluggishness, malware infections and more.
DNS and BIND, 5th Ed. explains how to work with the Internet's distributed host information database—which is responsible for translating names into addresses, routing mail to its proper destination, and listing phone numbers according to the ENUM standard. Covers BIND 9.3.2 & 8.4.7, the what/how/why of DNS, name servers, MX records, subdividing domains (parenting), DNSSEC, TSIG, troubleshooting and more. PEPCK tells us this is "generally considered the DNS reference book (aside from the RFCs of course!)"
Windows PowerShell in Action, 3rd Ed. is a comprehensive guide to PowerShell. Written by language designer Bruce Payette and MVP Richard Siddaway, this volume gives a great introduction to Powershell, including everyday use cases and detailed examples for more-advanced topics like performance and module architecture. Covers workflows and classes, writing modules and scripts, desired state configuration and programming APIs/pipelines.This edition has been updated for PowerShell v6.
Zero Trust Networks: Building Secure Systems in Untrusted Networks explains the principles behind zero trust architecture, along with what's needed to implement it. Covers the evolution of perimeter-based defenses and how they evolved into the current broken model, case studies of zero trust in production networks on both the client and server side, example configurations for open-source tools that are useful for building a zero trust network and how to migrate from a perimeter-based network to a zero trust network in production. Kindly recommended by jaginfosec.
Tips
Here are a couple handy Windows shortcuts:
Here's a shortcut for a 4-pane explorer in Windows without installing 3rd-party software:
(Keep the win key down for the arrows, and no pauses.) Appreciation goes to ZAFJB for this one.
Our recent tip for a shortcut to get a 4-pane explorer in Windows, triggered this suggestion from SevaraB: "You can do that for an even larger grid of Windows by right-clicking the clock in the taskbar, and clicking 'Show windows side by side' to arrange them neatly. Did this for 4 rows of 6 windows when I had to have a quick 'n' dirty "video wall" of windows monitoring servers at our branches." ZAFJB adds that it actually works when you right-click "anywhere on the taskbar, except application icons or start button."
This tip comes courtesy of shipsass: "When I need to use Windows Explorer but I don't want to take my hands off the keyboard, I press Windows-E to launch Explorer and then Ctrl-L to jump to the address line and type my path. The Ctrl-L trick also works with any web browser, and it's an efficient way of talking less-technical people through instructions when 'browse to [location]' stumps them."
Clear browser history/cookies by pressing CTRL-SHIFT-DELETE on most major browsers. Thanks go to synapticpanda, who adds that this "saves me so much time when troubleshooting web apps where I am playing with the cache and such."
To rename a file with F2, while still editing the name of that file: Hit TAB to tab into the renaming of the next file. Thanks to abeeftaco for this one!
Alt-D is a reliable alternative to Ctrl-L for jumping to the address line in a browser. Thanks for this one go to fencepost_ajm, who explains: "Ctrl-L comes from the browser side as a shortcut for Location, Alt-D from the Windows Explorer side for Directory."
Browser shortcut: When typing a URL that ends with dot com, Ctrl + Enter will place the ".com" and take you to the page. Thanks to wpierre for this one!
This tip comes from anynonus, as something that daily that saves a few clicks: "Running a program with ctrl + shift + enter from start menu will start it as administrator (alt + y will select YES to run as admin) ... my user account is local admin [so] I don't feel like that is unsafe"
Building on our PowerShell resources, we received the following suggestion from halbaradkenafin: aka.ms/pskoans is "a way to learn PowerShell using PowerShell (and Pester). It's really cool and a bunch of folks have high praise for it (including a few teams within MSFT)."
Keyboard shortcut: If you already have an application open, hold ctrl + shift and middle click on the application in your task bar to open another instance as admin. Thanks go to Polymira for this one.
Remote Server Tip: "Critical advice. When testing out network configuration changes, prior to restarting the networking service or rebooting, always create a cron job that will restore your original network configuration and then reboot/restart networking on the machine after 5 minutes. If your config worked, you have enough time to remove it. If it didn't, it will fix itself. This is a beautifully simple solution that I learned from my old mentor at my very first job. I've held on to it for a long time." Thanks go to FrigidNox for the tip!
Websites
Deployment Research is the website of Johan Arwidmark, MS MVP in System Center Cloud and Datacenter Management. It is dedicated to sharing information and guidance around System Center, OS deployment, migration and more. The author shares tips and tricks to help improve the quality of IT Pros’ daily work.
Next of Windows is a website on (mostly) Microsoft-related technology. It's the place where Kent Chen—a computer veteran with many years of field experience—and Jonathan Hu—a web/mobile app developer and self-described "cool geek"—share what they know, what they learn and what they find in the hope of helping others learn and benefit.
High Scalability brings together all the relevant information about building scalable websites in one place. Because building a website with confidence requires a body of knowledge that can be slow to develop, the site focuses on moving visitors along the learning curve at a faster pace.
Information Technology Research Library is a great resource for IT-related research, white papers, reports, case studies, magazines, and eBooks. This library is provided at no charge by TradePub.com. GullibleDetective tells us it offers "free PDF files from a WIIIIIIDE variety of topics, not even just IT. Only caveat: as its a vendor-supported publishing company, you will have to give them a bit of information such as name, email address and possibly a company name. You undoubtedly have the ability to create fake information on this, mind you. The articles range from Excel templates, learning python, powershell, nosql etc. to converged architecture."
SS64 is a web-based reference guide for syntax and examples of the most-common database and OS computing commands. Recommended by Petti-The-Yeti, who adds, "I use this site all the time to look up commands and find examples while I'm building CMD and PS1 scripts."
Phishing and Malware Reporting. This website helps you put a stop to scams by getting fraudulent pages blocked. Easily report phishing webpages so they can be added to blacklists in as little as 15 minutes of your report. "Player024 tells us, "I highly recommend anyone in the industry to bookmark this page...With an average of about 10 minutes of work, I'm usually able to take down the phishing pages we receive thanks to the links posted on that website."
A Slack Channel
Windows Admin Slack is a great drive-by resource for the Windows sysadmin. This team has 33 public channels in total that cover different areas of helpful content on Windows administration.
Blogs
KC's Blog is the place where Microsoft MVP and web developer Kent Chen shares his IT insights and discoveries. The rather large library of posts offer helpful hints, how-tos, resources and news of interest to those in the Windows world.
The Windows Server Daily is the ever-current blog of technologist Katherine Moss, VP of open source & community engagement for StormlightTech. Offers brief daily posts on topics related to Windows server, Windows 10 and Administration.
An Infosec Slideshow
This security training slideshow was created for use during a quarterly infosec class. The content is offered generously by shalafi71, who adds, "Take this as a skeleton and flesh it out on your own. Take an hour or two and research the things I talk about. Tailor this to your own environment and users. Make it relevant to your people. Include corporate stories, include your audience, exclude yourself. This ain't about how smart you are at infosec, and I can't stress this enough, talk about how people can defend themselves. Give them things to look for and action they can take. No one gives a shit about your firewall rules."
Tech Tutorials
Tutorialspoint Library. This large collection of tech tutorials is a great resource for online learning. You'll find nearly 150 high-quality tutorials covering a wide array of languages and topics—from fundamentals to cutting-edge technologies. For example, this Powershell tutorial is designed for those with practical experience handling Windows-based Servers who want to learn how to install and use Windows Server 2012.
The Python Tutorial is a nice introduction to many of Python’s best features, enabling you to read and write Python modules and programs. It offers an understanding of the language's style and prepares you to learn more about the various Python library modules described in 'The Python Standard Library.' Kindly suggested by sharjeelsayed.
SysAdmin Humor
Day in the Life of a SysAdmin Episode 5: Lunch Break is an amusing look at a SysAdmin's attempt to take a brief lunch break. We imagine many of you can relate!
Have a fantastic week and as usual, let me know any comments.
Graham | CEO | EveryCloud
submitted by crispyducks to ITProTuesday [link] [comments]

The Complete NERF Blaster MOSFET Wiring Tutorial for Beginners and Pros

It’s time for an easy MOSFET wiring guide. There haven’t been too many, so I’ll add mine to the list. I’ve mainly seen the use of high-amperage micro-switches in this community, but as tech in blasters (microcontrollers, brushless motors) continues to expand and the motor-arms-race delivering new, high-draw motors to the scene, it’s time for another MOSFET guide without confusing the beginners while at the same time, enlightening the experienced modders.
This guide will be super in-depth, and will hopefully cover a ton content so you could start it off as a beginner, and come back to it as a pro, and learn something every time. No prerequisites required - just a basic understanding of electricity! For the more advanced and technical parts, a high-school level understanding of physics and chemistry may be required. Read what you understand, and skip what you don't. There will be some parts which will be intimidating to beginners, but that’s the point! There’s always something new to learn in electronics, whether that be more electronics, physics, or microcontrollers.
MOSFET
Check this guide out on my site: https://suild.com/docs/0

First off, what is a MOSFET?

A MOSFET is a type of transistor. A transistor is a switch relying on an electrical signal to allow current to flow, rather than a physical movement like a switch.
I know the first time someone told me that, I got super confused. Immediately below is a beginner friendly description of a transistor, and a the further down you go, the more technical it will get. If you understand above, that’s all you need to know about a MOSFETS’s functionality. Feel free to read more below, or skip to the next section: CTRL + F - “MOSFET PINOUT”.
Let’s take a look an an example of a switch. For this example, a light switch. In its resting state, electricity will not flow - the light bulb is not on. But when you flick the switch, the light turns on - electricity is flowing. Notice how it relies on manual mechanical energy, your finger pressing on it, for the current to flow. Whats often happening in these switches is the movement of a metal piece which touches different metal things for electricity to flow as desired.
Here’s a good example of what’s happening
Now that you know how a switch works completely, let’s look at a transistor now. Remember, a MOSFET is a type of transistor, so they work exactly the same. If you didn’t already know, transistors are one of the most amazing inventions ever, on-par with fire and the wheel (not joking!). Everything computedigital = transistors. They revolutionized computing technology, and all of our computers (laptops, phones, microcontrollers, watches, calculators) are based on transistor architecture. In your Intel Core i7 processor, there are over fourteen billion transistors! For comparison, the earth is only about 25,000 miles in circumference. In your phones, transistors can be as small as seven nanometers, and the smallest ones invented are around one nanometer. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter, so transistors have gotten down to the size of a few atoms across now.
Okay, enough lecture on how amazing transistors are (hint: they’re really amazing!). Let’s see how they work. Remember how a switch relies on a manual input to control the electrical behavior? Well, a transistor uses electrical input to control the electrical behavior.
Here’s a picture of a transistor
Imagine a switch which has two pins. The two pins will conduct electricity when the switch is pressed, and will not conduct electricity when the switch is not pressed. Observe the above picture of a transistor, and notice how it has three pins. Two of the pins will allow for electricity to conduct when the other pin is fed electricity. We’ll call this “other pin” the signal pin, since it acts as a signal which signals when the other two pin should conduct electricity.
So transistors are like switches, but they’re awesomer. They can be MUCH smaller and MUCH faster.
Tl;dr Transistors are like switches, but are awesomer since they rely on an electrical input, rather than manual input like a switch.
Now that you know how a transistor works, it would be extremely helpful to understand the pins as well

MOSFET Pinout

A MOSFET is a transistor, and a transistor has three pins. Therefore, a MOSFET has three pins.
MOSFET Pinout
Take a look at that picture. The pins are labeled:
“Two of the pins will allow for electricity to conduct when the other pin is fed electricity” is the same as “The Drain and Source will conduct electricity when the Get gets fed electricity.
You can think of the gate that acts like a gate. When the gate is open (it gets fed electricity), electricity can flow through the MOSFET.
You don’t really need to remember these fancy names, but they will be Extremely helpful for the rest of this write-up. Don't fuss too much over remembering them, the concept is much more important. The more you are exposed to the words in context, the better and faster you will understand them. Hopefully I use them enough in this write-up that you’ll know them front-and-back by the end of this.
And that’s all it is for understanding MOSFETs! I hope you completely understand how they work, and the pins. It gets a bit more technical from here on about MOSFETs, so feel free to read through it or skip to the next section: CTRL + F - “Why Should I Even Use a MOSFET?”.

More technical discussion starts here.

There are two different types of MOSFETs, an “N-Channel MOSFET” and a “P-Channel MOSFET”. You can think of it like this: an N-channel MOSFET connects negative of the battery to negative of the load, and a P-channel MOSFET connects the positive of the battery to the positive of the load. Since the N-channel MOSFET connects the negatives, we call it “Low-side switching”, and the P-channel MOSFET as “High-side switching”. If you’re more familiar with BJTs, a P-channel MOSFET would be equivalent to a PNP BJT, and an N-channel to an NPN.
Although both can be used, in this build, an N-channel MOSFET will be used. Here are some advantages of N-channel MOSFETs over P-channel ones:
MOSFET is an acronym:
Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor
MOS, or metal-oxide semiconductor, describes the chemical properties of the semiconductive materials which makes the MOSFET work. Recall from the media and chemistry class that a semiconductor includes elements such as Silicon and Germanium. Many transistors rely on Silicon chemistry, with special enhancement substances injected, or ‘doped’, for enhanced performance.
This metal-oxide layer insulates the input voltage from the output current as well, so the input voltage interacts with the output current through electromagnetic fields, as described below.
FET, or field-effect transistor, describes the type of transistor. A more ‘traditional’ transistor, such as a BJT, works using current, assuming the threshold voltage has been exceeded, to determine its conductive behavior, as the current flowing through the base directly interacts with the current flowing through the collector and emitter. While a BJT’s conducive behavior is more reliant on current, a FET’s conductive behavior is more reliant on voltage.
FETs work on electric fields, as described in the name. When an electric potential difference between the gate and source is observed, an electric field is created. Since we are using an enhancement mode FET, rather than a depletion mode FET, pulling the gate-source voltage (Vgs) to high will turn the FET on, so current can flow through the drain and source. The strength of the electric field formed is proportional to Vgs, and the stronger the electric field, the lower the internal resistance of the device. Therefore, a input higher voltage will result in better current flow of the device.
Remember, more internal resistance, or resistance between the drain and source (Rds) means the less energy goes to your load, so a decrease in efficiency. A higher resistance will also result in more heat generation, and more heat is often not a good thing. A higher junction temperature also results in a higher resistance, and this higher resistance results in more heat generation, and so on. It’s like an infinite loop. Extremely high junction temperatures (Tj) can also destroy the internal chemistry of the FET. The MOSFET linked below in the parts section can handle up to 175C, so you won’t need to worry about heat too much in your build. The chemical and electrical properties of a FET will vary a little bit based on Tj, so check your datasheets on that. If you’re reading this part, I assume you have the technical capability to be able to read data sheets. Luckily, most MOSFETs include a heat-sink integrated into the device, as well as decently high operating temperature thresholds.
Ideal Vgs for MOSFETs are between eight and twelve volts, depending on the specific model. Check the data sheets. Voltage from your LiPo battery, whether that be 2S or 3S, works perfectly fine. Depending on the particular MOSFET, Rds may be as low as a few mΩ, at an ideal state. The MOSFET linked in this write-up has an Rds of around 2mΩ.
To summarize MOSFETs:

Why Should I Even Use a MOSFET?

All this fancy talk about MOSFETs, and I didn’t even explain what’s so good about them.
When we modify blasters, we often do a few things:
  • Battery replacement with LiPos
  • Motor replacement
  • Rewire with 16 AWG or 18 AWG wiring
  • Switch replacement
One of the above modifications results in or is a result of the avalanching modification requirements. Motor replacement calls for a higher ability of discharge from a battery = battery replacement. Battery replacement = higher current = rewire + switch replacement.
Let’s take a look at the few options we have for controlling our high-amperage circuits:
  • High-amperage microswitches
  • Relays
  • MOSFETs

High-amperage Microswitches

Top of the line motors, at the moment, may draw close to 50A at stall. The highest rated microswitches in in the community I’ve seen are 21A microswitches. 50A > 21A. But high end motors only draw 50A for a fraction of a second, so the switches should be safe, right? For now. I’ve never heard of anyone damaging a 21A switch from high-draw motors anyways.
But in the time of a motor-arms-race, more motors are being release, and these motors are getting more powerful. This means higher current draw. Soon, even our 21A switches won’t be able to keep up with all these motors. But MOSFETs will. Well, they already do. They are currently used today to control high-power appliances, including street lights and airplanes.
High-amperage switches don’t fit directly into blasters. You’ll need to dremel out a lot of the stock switch mounting area, orient the switch correctly, and then adhere it into place. You also have possibly 100A of current running through your grip, millimeters away from your hand. That doesn't sound safe.
Tl;dr Requires shell modifications, not future-proof

Relays

This is a relay
Although I haven’t personally seen the use of relays too much in builds, they are another basic option to control high-draw motors. They are also quite advantageous over high-amperage microswitches.
Relays are literally switches controlled by a magnet. But that magnet, known as an electromagnet, can be turned on and off. So there is a physical moving part which toggles position based on whether the electromagnet is on or not. A low power signal controlling the electromagnet will determine whether current can flow, similar to a transistoMOSFET.
Relays can be advantageous over high-amperage microswitches since shell modification may not be necessary. The stock NERF switch may be used as a ‘signal’ to control electricity flow through the relay.
Although relays are reign supreme over high-amperage switches in terms of shell modifications, they fall short in the same ways. Some of the highest-power relays, automotive relays (yep, the stuff used in cars), can get quite expensive and are rated for only 30A - 40A.

Here’s why MOSFETs are better

  • Zero shell modification. Can be wired to rest in any part of the shell.
  • Can handle higher current (the one I’ve linked can handle up to 343A under the right circumstances)
  • Cost. I see high-amperage switches costing around $5, and around the same for high-amperage relays. A MOSFET fulfilling all the needs of the highest-end blaster can cost around $3, and you could get away with some MOSFETs costing under $1, depending on your setup.
  • A lot faster. After all, transistors are used in your 3GHz computers. (will be further explained in technical section below)
  • You sound more pro: “Yeah, in my Rapidstrike, I’m running an IRLB3034PbF N-channel low-side switching HEXFET power MOSFET controlling the flywheels, and an IRFZ44N N-channel low-side switching HEXFET power MOSFET controlling the flywheels. Both are hooked up to a 10 kilo-ohm quarter-watt pulldown resistor to combat electrostatic interference, and a 1N5408 flyback rectifier diode to suppress transient voltage spikes resulting from the collapsing electromagnetic field of the motor’s coil” vs “I’m running a 21A microswitch. I like how it’s super clicky click click click”.
  • Afterburners. You don't want six motors worth of current running through your wimpy microswitch.
Cons of MOSFET: May be electrically complex for beginners. This write-up changes that, so there is no excuse not to use MOSFETs.
Tl;dr MOSFETs are better.
Now that you know why MOSFETs are objectively superior, feel free to go onto the technical part where. If not, skip ahead to the next section: CTRL + F - “How it all Works - Putting all the Concepts Together”

Technical Discussion Starts Here

I’ll be going over pulse-width-modulation (PWM) here, and specifically, its relevance to tech in blasters. When I say tech in blasters, I don’t mean 3D printed components or wiring looms, I mean programmed microcontrollers, such as in Eli Wu’s builds, Project FDL, Ammo Counters by AmmoCounter.com, and my upcoming Smart Blaster kits.
So what is PWM? Other than sounding super fancy, it’s also super useful. First, I need to discuss the difference between digital and analog components.
What does it mean, digital? Well, I’m sure we’ve all heard of it, “The digital age” and stuff like that. Digital often induces imagery of computers, and binary, 1’s and 0’s. That’s exactly what digital describes, binary. Digital means involving only two values. For example, your light would be digital, since it only has two values, ON and OFF, or the status of your phone power being at 100% battery, TRUE, or FALSE. Your phone is either at 100% battery, or it’s not at 100% battery. Tying this to computers, remember how computers only “see” in binary, 1, and 0: 101010001001. Binary only has two values, 1, and 0, therefore, it is called a digital value.
What about analog? While digital pertains to states which only have two values, analog pertains to states which may have more than one value. For example, the temperature. There are many different values the weather can be, 78F, 92F, or even 23F. Those are only three, but there are an unlimited number of different temperatures (mathematically, not physically) possible when we include decimals. Another example would be the speed of your car. It could be going at 60mph, or 61mph, or 73mph, or 5mph.
Tl;dr Digital = only two values (light - ON or OFF), analog = more than two values (speed - 60mph, 25mph, 3mph, etc.)
Now, what about our motors in our blasters? What would best describe their output state - analog, or digital? Well, in our blasters, they really only have two states, ON, or OFF. But motors, like a car, can be analog. They can be off, on, in the middle, and anything in between.
So we know it is physically possible to control the speed of our blaster’s motors. This yields us a variable control of dart velocity, power consumption, and rate of fire (Hint Hint an upcoming Smart Blaster kit). If we want our darts traveling at 130fps instead of the maximum 150fps for confusion tactics against our enemies, we can crank down on speed of the motors a bit. If we want to shoot our Rapidstrike a bit slower in terms of darts/sec, to conserve ammo without burst-fire (Hint Hint another upcoming Smart Blaster kit) then we could slow down the pusher motor a bit. And we can control these speeds using a microcontroller.
A microcontroller is just like a computer, but quite a lot smaller than your laptops. They're also mounted on ICs. Some examples include an Atmega328 and a TI MSP430G2452IN20, but NOT a Raspberry Pi. A Raspberry Pi as a microprocessor. An Atmega328 and a TI MSP430G2452IN20are NOT microprocessors. An Arduino and a Teensy is NOT a microcontroller or a microprocessor, it simply houses a microcontroller. DON’T call an Arduino a microprocessor, because it’s not. Call it a microcontroller, since it’s basically a shell for one. I’m super anal about these terms but I don't know why lol.
But explained above is how computers are digital, and motor speed is analog. Analog != digital, so how do we do this? Well, there’s this fancy thing called PWM. It’s basically just returning an analog output, such as motor velocity, from a digital device, such as a computemicrocontroller. It works by toggling output power super super fast, sometimes many kHz, depending on the device outputting the power.
Let’s say we have a 10W power source. We’re only talking about power here, but remember Power = Voltage * Current, Watts= Volts * Amps. PWM controls power. And a circuit that looks like this. Notice how the power source goes through a PWM device, and the PWM device then outputs to a motor. The PWM device is a digital device.
PWM Circuit
If we leave the PWM device at high the entire time, then the output will be at 10W. If we leave the PWM device at low the entire time, then the output will be at 0W. If we toggle power (power ON and OFF, a digital value, compatible with the computer) in the PWM device so fast that on average, 50% of the time, the power is high (10W), and the rest 50% of the time, the power is low (0W) it will average out at 5W, so the output will be 5W. Now, what if we toggle the PWM so fast that on average, 70% of the time, the power is high, and 30% of the time, the power is low?
It will average out at 7W, so the output will be 7W.
Notice how I’m getting an analog value (10W, 0W, 5W, 7W, and anything in between) out of a digital device (PWM device). Now, we can replace the PWM device with something like an Arduino, and accomplish the same thing.
I won’t be going over too much how PWM works, but I hope you understand the basics. Now let’s tie this back into MOSFETs.
Recall how power must be toggled in the PWM device “super super” fast. When working with Arduino, this will be around 600 Hz, or 600 times a second. With dedicated PWM devices, this can get up into the Kilohertz, or even Megahertz. Can you move your finger on the trigger that fast? If you could, then theoretically, you would be able to achieve PWM with your hands. Unfortunately, the switch can’t. Even with a relay, PWM can’t be practically achieved. Relays take about 20 milliseconds to change state, so only about 50 Hz. Not even close to fast enough. So we need to switch from electromechanical to electrochemical.
Here’s where the MOSFET comes into play. Remember how the MOSFET is a transistor, and transistors are in computers. Consumer computers can clock as fast as a a few Gigahertz, or a few billion times per second. Yep, that’s how fast transistors are. So MOSFETs are more than suitable, because of their speed, for variable motor control.
Tl;dr MOSFETs are so fast you can do analog outputs with them.

How it all Works - Putting all the Concepts Together

Almost time for wiring! I truly believe the concepts behind how this build works is much more important than how to assemble it. A robot can assemble this, but can’t understand the concepts. You can do both.
Let’s combine all the concepts of the transistor, MOSFET, and MOSFET pinout together to create a basic operational diagram of the circuit.
First, the MOSFET needs some sort of electrical signal to turn on. This signal will come from a switch, any switch can be used, but I use the stock switch. Super little current will flow through the switch, so you won’t need a huge 21A switch. That’s what’s so great about a MOSFET setup, the stock switch can be reused, so zero shell modification is necessary.
Signal Diagram
Now, this electrical signal needs to go into the MOSFET, to the Gate pin. You can see in the diagram above that when the switch is pressed, the gate is fed electricity, so electricity can flow through the other two pins of the MOSFET, the drain and source.
Source-Drain Diagram
Now, let's look at the complete diagram. The Signal Diagram has just been expanded upon. Now, when the switch is pressed and the MOSFET allows electricity to flow through the drain and source, we see that the entire circuit is complete! Positive of the battery goes into the load, and the load is connected to ground/negative. A full circuit!
It’s about to get a bit technical here. I’ll go over the functionality of a the resistor and diode, it’s pretty complex stuff. You know the drill to skip: “Parts and Tools Required” This will be the last technical section.

Technical Discussion Starts Here

I will discuss two components here, why they’re needed: the resistor, and the diode. The diode is much more complicated in its functionality.
The Resistor
A Sneak Preview of Some Schematics:Schematics of Pull-Down Resistor
This resistor is known as a “pull-down” resistor, since it connects between the gate of the MOSFET and ground. When working with electronics, you will see “pull-up” and pull-down resistors a lot. pull-up/down resistors are used to ensure given no other input, a circuit assumes a default value. In the case of this build, since a pull-down resistor is being used, the default value is pulled to low. This makes sense, since when the MOSFET is off, the Vgs (input voltage, or potential difference between the gate and source), is zero.
But why would we need this pull-down resistor if no current is flowing to the gate when the switch isn't pressed? Well that’s the thing. It’s not that simple. The voltage as the gate is said to be “floating”. This means the voltage could be many different values, and that will of course mess up how the MOSFET will behave. A small input voltage, say, from the electrostatics of your finger, could be all that’s needed to turn the MOSFET on. This isn’t good, so we use the pull-down resistor to ensure that when the MOSFET is off, it’s off for good.
The Diode
A Sneak Preview of Some Schematics: Schematics of Flyback Diode
This diode is known as a “flyback diode”
Motors are extremely interesting works of techonology. Simply put, it’s a converter between mechanical energy and electrical energy, and it can work in both directions: as a generator, and as a motor. When the motors act as a generator, a voltage in the reverse direction is formed. Voltage is the force driving the current, so we also call it electromotive force, or EMF. Because the voltage is in the reverse direction, we call it counter-EMF or back EMF (BEMF).
Okay, let’s go over that again.
  • Voltage = electromotive force = EMF
  • A motor may also act as a generator.
  • When a motor acts as a generator, it will generate a voltage in the reverse direction of current flow.
  • This voltage in the reverse direction has a special name: counter EMF or back EMF (BEMF)
So when does the motor act as a generator? Well, in real-world applications, this is used in power plants, both nuclear, coal, and natural gas. They’re all taking some sort of mechanical energy, and converting it to electrical energy.
Remember! A motor and generator are the same. The only difference is the direction of the conversion of energy.
In media, we’ve seen someone pedaling on a stationary bicycle to power a light bulb. This is a generatomotor. A generatomotor apparatus is attached to the bike in a way so when the pedal is turned, it turns the shaft of the motogenerator. It’s converting mechanical energy (the biker moving his legs to pedal the pedals) into electrical energy (to power the light bulb). If I were to power the same generatomotor apparatus using a battery, the pedals will actually turn. In this case, I’m turning the motogenerator apparatus into a motor: a converter between electrical energy (stored in the battery) into mechanical energy (to move the pedals).
So in a blaster, power from the battery is going to the motors when the rev trigger is pressed. The motor is acting like a motor, converting electrical energy to mechanical energy. When the rev trigger isn’t pressed, the power from the battery is cut off, so no more power from the battery is going into the motor. But, the we observe the motor is still spinning. It may not be spinning as fast as when the rev trigger was being pressed, but the motors are still spinning. And what happens to a motor when it’s spinning, but not powered? It’s a generator. The motor is converting the mechanical energy (flywheels spinning) into electrical energy. We can harness this energy to charge our batteries (this is how some vehicles like the Toyota Prius work), but a more complex circuit will be necessary, and it won’t be too effective. Also recall that the energy being generated is BEMF.
The concept of a motogenerator is very important to describe the functionality of the flyback diode.
This is a Diode
Notice how the anode, or positive part, of the diode is connected to Vcc. This is so current doesn’t flow through the diode when the motor is on. But, when the motor is powered off, a BEMF is created. Now what was previously the negative of the motor becomes the positive of the power source, since it’s acting as a generator and the EMF created is in the opposite direction, hence BEMF. Now, the negative of the motogenerator is connected to the cathode, or negative part, of the diode, and the positive is connected to the anode. Current can now flow through the diode, but only when the motogenerator is generating BEMF. That’s why the orientation of the diode matters.
Now this is where many people get confused, myself previously included. They think that this BEMF may produce high spikes in voltage, which may damage the MOSFET. So, a flyback diode is required to take care of those high spikes in voltage. This is not entirely correct.
To debunk this theory, we need to remember that the BEMF ONLY from the motor turning into a generator generating voltage from the flywheel’s inertia will never exceed the battery voltage. The voltage generated only by the freewheeling of a motor will not exceed that of the supply.
But, the BEMF consists of two components: freewheeling voltage, and flyback voltage. The flyback voltage is what can damage the MOSFET, since they can be extremely high and unpredictable.
The source of this flyback voltage results from the functionality of the motor. Motors use coils. If you’ve ever opened one up, accidentally or purposely, you'll see coils. Some motors have permanent magnets, and others have electromagnets, which means more coils. When current passes through coils, it creates a magnetic field. This is called induction, as described in Faraday’s law. Okay, induction, no big deal. It’s just how a motor operates. When the circuit is open, no more magnetic field is being induced, since the flow of current has stopped. But a magnetic field already exists from the previous flow of current, and according to the first law of Thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or destroyed. This energy in the field can’t be destroyed, so it needs to go somewhere, so it goes back into the coil. This collapsing magnetic field feeds back into the coil, or inductor, and it become the source in the circuit. This “inductive spike” can generate high voltages, and this high voltage is what we protect our MOSFET from using a flyback diode.
Yum physics!
Tl;dr Resistor to ensure that when the MOSFET should be off, it is off. Diode to protect MOSFET from high voltages from the motor

Parts and Tools Required

This is already page 16 on the Google Docs, and I just rambled about MOSFETs that entire time. Let’s get started with some legit write-up. Here are the parts required. Don't skip out on any part just because you don’t know what it does, because you’ll blow stuff up.
  • 1x MOSFET. I recommend a IRLB3034PBF as an all-purpose MOSFET which will work for any motor setup. You could also get away with a IRFZ44N as with a lower-draw setup. (IRFZ44N also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in higher quantities) - $3 for an IRLB3034PBF
  • 10kΩ (10,000Ω) resistor. Can be higher, like a 15kΩ, or 47kΩ. Digi-Key Link (Also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in a kit of many different values) - $0.10 for one ($0.40 for ten, super bulk discounts)
  • 1N540x Rectifier Diode (0 < x <= 8; x = 8 is “strongest” and costs the same prices as 0 < x <= 7) Digi-Key Link (Also available on Amazon through Prime, but may come in a kit of many different values) ($0.25 for one, also offers bulk discounts)
  • Wire 16 AWG - 18 AWG for motors, literally any wire (stock NERF wire will work) for MOSFET signal. (you should already have this, if not $0.50)
  • Heat shrink tubing. MOSFET pins are super close together, you don’t want to short anything out. (you should already have this, if not $0.50)
  • Stock NERF microswitch (come in your blaster, you can recycle it - FREE)
Total cost: $4.35

Tools

  • Wiring tools: Soldering Iron + solder, all that good stuff
  • I Highly recommend a multimeter for testing and debugging as well as a solder sucker for any mistakes on the tiny pins of the MOSFET. A cheap multimeter can be found for around $20, and a cheap soldersucker can cost around $1 from China. These are not required.
I recommend buying all electronics from Digi-Key. They are a trustworthy electronics distributor, I’ve been shopping with them for years, and you won’t run into any knock-offs exploding in your face. Also offer great selection and prices.
Buy from China only if you know what you’re doing. You’ll save some money when buying from China, but of course it will take longer. I’ve bought thousands of electronics from China, just make sure to read datasheets and product descriptions.
Also note how many of the electronics come in kits with many different values, and a decent quantity of each value. I would recommend purchasing these kits if you plan on continuing to get more in depth into electronics, as these are basic parts which will be used throughout electronics.

Wiring

Okay, here comes the fun part! A basic understanding of how the circuit works is greatly beneficial when it comes to wiring. Please look it over so you don’t explode any MOSFETs.
Here are some wiring diagrams to wire everything together properly, once you’ve gathered all the required tools and parts.
Tips:
  • Remember to wire your diode in correctly! You’ll know it’s facing the wrong way or wired incorrectly if the motors aren’t spinning when the rev trigger is pressed, and/or if the diode gets warm.
  • MOSFET shouldn’t get hot when testing. If it does, double check your wiring.
  • If the MOSFET legs are too close together to solder, feel free to bend the legs. You may also bend the legs back when you’re done. They’re easier to bend up/down than left/right. When I was first starting out, I bent the legs like this: http://i.imgur.com/B2bCHLW.jpg
  • Tin the legs of the MOSFET before soldering. It makes life so much easier.
  • Feel free to cut the pins of the MOSFET as well. Just make sure there’s still enough to solder onto them.
  • Since the resistor’s legs are so long, I like to wire it on my MOSFET like this: (Step 1) (Step 2) (STEP 3) . Notice how the legs of the resistors wrap around the MOSFET’s pins.
  • When using fatter wire, it may get tricky to solder them onto the pins. I recommending physically connecting the wires in relation to the pins. For example, the right pin would have the wire soldered to the right edge of the pin, and the left pin would have the wire soldered onto the left edge o the pin. You don't need to solder all of the wires directly on top of each pin.
  • Heat shrink all connections!
  • Test with a few AAs first. Sometimes, two or three might not be enough. You might need a few more. Don't damage your LiPo.
Close up your blaster and

You’re all done!

Final Notes

Whoo! Finally done. It sure took me a long time to make this, and I hope it takes you a long time to read and understand the concepts here. If I have made any mistakes in terminology or concepts, or you need something clarified, please do notify me! as I am still learning.

Useful Links

Video Tutorial: One day
Imgur Album with all the images: http://imgur.com/a/F82Gk
A Google Doc of this: https://goo.gl/8rX1dB
Read this on my website: http://suild.com/docs/0
MOSFET Boards: https://suild.com/shop/0
To learn more cool stuff, check these out. No Wikipedia links since my school says they’re evil and because they can oftentimes be too technical for beginners, and it’s usually the first search result:
What is a MOSFET?
How does a MOSFET work? (Title says Transistor, but video describes a MOSFET)
Controlling High-Current Loads
BJT vs. MOSFET
P-Channel vs N-Channel MOSFET
PWM
Arduino vs. Microcontroller vs. Microprocsessor
Pull-Up and Pull-Down Resistors
Flyback Diode
BEMF
More on BEMF
BEMF vs Flyback Voltage
If there are any topics you want covered in-depth by a tutorial like this, leave a comment on it! I do mainly electronics and coding, to too much hardware stuff. Here are some future tutorials I have in mind:
  • Select-fire (toggling fire modes with a joystick lol)
  • Motor braking
  • Tachometer (this will be pretty complicated, using concepts discussed in the flyback diode portion. Will require math.)
They will probably be write-ups such as this one, since my video production quality sucks :P
It took a good amount of time to make this twenty-two-page long document on Google Docs, so any feedback - on content, writing style, diagrams, etc. - would be greatly appreciated! Thanks so much for reading this much!
EDIT: Formatting, links, Google Doc link, link to website
submitted by MingBatt to Nerf [link] [comments]

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